Short Communication - Journal of RNA and Genomics (2020) Volume 16, Issue 2
Plantibodies: The plant pharmaceuticalsParameswara Reddy A*
Vignan Pharmacy College, Guntur, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Parameswara Reddy A
Vignan Pharmacy College
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: 23 June 2020; Accepted Date: 22 July 2020; Published Date: 28 July 2020
© Copyright: Parameswara Reddy A. First Published by Allied Academies. This is an open access article, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0). This license permits non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction of the article, provided the original work is appropriately acknowledged with correct citation details.
AbstractWhat the plantibody says ? Iam a portmanteau derived from a plant and an antibody endo membrane and secretory systems- clinically viable proteins Pathogen resistance.
What the plantibody says ?
Iam a portmanteau derived from a plant and an antibody endo membrane and secretory systems- clinically viable proteins Pathogen resistance.
Why produced in plants?
• Single secretory cell- Fully functional antibodies
• Reduce the risk of human contamination
• Lower upstream production cost
• Unlimited amounts of proteins & simplified purification
• More efficient & devoid of side effects-completely a novel technology
Why Not in others?
• Mammals require numerous cell types
• Ex:plasma cells-dimerising J chain epithelial cellssecretory component
• Frequently found in Microbial and animal cultures.
• Animal cell cultures-expensive growth media
• limited post translational Microbial cultures- modification of eukaryotic proteins & purification is often difficult
• The magic bullets (MCAb) in mice- give severe allergic reactions to human.
HOW are antibodies expressed in plants?
As either whole antibodies or as smaller fragments ScFv’s(Single chain Fragment variables).
Whole antibodies: more therapeutic potential more resistant to proteolysis
ScFv’s: easily targeted to sub-cellular compartments, efficient targets of specific pathogen proteins.
- Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated gene transfer:
• Transmits Ti plasmid into infected plant
• Desired genetic code inserted in place of Ti plasmid
• Cell wall pores opened by an electric shock
• DNA inserted Biolistics (particle bombardment-gene gun):
• Shooting a piece of DNA into the plant tissues
• Tiny gold or tungsten balls covered with coded genetic material
• Simple laboratory technique
• For both mono & dicotyledenous plants
• Recombinant virus infection:
• Similar to agrobacterium gene transfer
• Only difference is genetically modified material is not inserted into plant genome
• R.V causes the expression of the genetically induced protein eg: TMV
• Increased gene expression via promoter modulation
• Through modulation of proteins
• Over express the gene-results in more of the desired protein
How to obtain high amount of antibody production?
Targeting the proteins into apoplast – most efficient
• Apoplasm is lack of hydrolytic enzymes
• Retain high protein levels
• Can be preserved for long time
Developed more in Corn. Why?
• Seed kernels capable of storing plantibodies in a low moisture environment
• High concentration of protease inhibitors
• Can be purified by simple milling technique
• Staple food crop of many countries
Are the plantibodies so beneficial?
YES. . . . .
• Better than other transgenic foods
* edible vaccines for immuno deficiency patients
* nutrition foods (NEUTRACEUTICALS)no protein denaturation long storage
• Low cost
• Efficient transformation
• Correct assembly of multimeric proteins
• Safety-does not pose the risk of spreading human
Treatment of dental caries:
• Caused by Streptococcus mutans
• Plantibodies from tobacco plants-proved t provide protection upto 4 months
• Inhibit bacterial attachment to the tooth surface
• Prevent colonisation in the human body
• Opsonises the S.mutans facilitating phagocytosis
• Treatment of STD’s:
• Genital herpes:
• With a topical gel containing plantibodies against herpes type1&2 viruses
• Proved to be effective when applied to the vagina of mice
• Anti-HSV (Herpes simplex virus)
• Produced in soya beans
• Anti-HIV (Human immuno deficiency virus)
Against virus infections:
• Other transgenic plants by expressing viral coat protein genes -interfere the viral replications
• But the risk is the presence of viral DNA sequences present in human food stuffs
• So plantibody technology is an alternative approach
• F8 antibody - Against Artichoke Mottled Crinkle Virus (AMCV) coat protein - in Nicotiana benthamiana
• Against nematodes:
• Enzymes in the saliva – targets for plantibodies
• Prevent root localisation
• Interfere with the formation and maintenance of the feeding site of nematodes
• Target the proteins that initiates the nematode cell cycle
Epicyte – presently clinical trails
- Exclusive licence for plantibody technology
- Topical gel against herpes 1&2 virus
- Treatment of dental caries in Rhesus monkeys
- F8 plantibodies against AMCV
- Hepatitis B –virus in tobacco plants being investigated
- Topical gel against HSV in soya beans.
Scope and Future
- Plants : factory systems for the production of monoclonal antibodies
- Medication A solution to problematic in under devoloped nations
- Formulation of plantibody based topical contraceptives
- Investigations about
• acute pulmonary infection- by Respiratory Synctial virus
• Diarrohea – by Clostridium difficille
• Hope to produce plantibodies against HIV – the major threat to the world human life.
• Production of plantibodies in plants has numerous applications not only in the pharmaceutical industries but also the plant breeder
• The plantibody technology holds a lot of promise for the future hopefully contributing to the treatment of many diseases.