Journal of RNA and Genomics

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Short Communication - Journal of RNA and Genomics (2020) Volume 16, Issue 2

Plantibodies: The plant pharmaceuticals

Parameswara Reddy A*

Vignan Pharmacy College, Guntur, India

*Corresponding Author:
Parameswara Reddy A
Vignan Pharmacy College
Guntur, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: 23 June 2020; Accepted Date: 22 July 2020; Published Date: 28 July 2020

© Copyright: Parameswara Reddy A. First Published by Allied Academies. This is an open access article, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0). This license permits non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction of the article, provided the original work is appropriately acknowledged with correct citation details.

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Abstract

What the plantibody says ? Iam a portmanteau derived from a plant and an antibody endo membrane and secretory systems- clinically viable proteins Pathogen resistance.

Introduction

What the plantibody says ?

Iam a portmanteau derived from a plant and an antibody endo membrane and secretory systems- clinically viable proteins Pathogen resistance.

Why produced in plants?

• Single secretory cell- Fully functional antibodies

• Reduce the risk of human contamination

• Lower upstream production cost

• Unlimited amounts of proteins & simplified purification

• More efficient & devoid of side effects-completely a novel technology

Why Not in others?

• Mammals require numerous cell types

• Ex:plasma cells-dimerising J chain epithelial cellssecretory component

• Frequently found in Microbial and animal cultures.

• Animal cell cultures-expensive growth media

• limited post translational Microbial cultures- modification of eukaryotic proteins & purification is often difficult

• The magic bullets (MCAb) in mice- give severe allergic reactions to human.

HOW are antibodies expressed in plants?

As either whole antibodies or as smaller fragments ScFv’s(Single chain Fragment variables).

Whole antibodies: more therapeutic potential more resistant to proteolysis

ScFv’s: easily targeted to sub-cellular compartments, efficient targets of specific pathogen proteins.

Methods

Transgenic methods:

- Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated gene transfer:

• Transmits Ti plasmid into infected plant

• Desired genetic code inserted in place of Ti plasmid

- Electroporation:

• Cell wall pores opened by an electric shock

• DNA inserted Biolistics (particle bombardment-gene gun):

• Shooting a piece of DNA into the plant tissues

• Tiny gold or tungsten balls covered with coded genetic material

• Simple laboratory technique

• For both mono & dicotyledenous plants

Non-transgenic methods

• Recombinant virus infection:

• Similar to agrobacterium gene transfer

• Only difference is genetically modified material is not inserted into plant genome

• R.V causes the expression of the genetically induced protein eg: TMV

• Increased gene expression via promoter modulation

• Through modulation of proteins

• Over express the gene-results in more of the desired protein

How to obtain high amount of antibody production?

Targeting the proteins into apoplast – most efficient

• Apoplasm is lack of hydrolytic enzymes

• Seeds:

• Retain high protein levels

• Can be preserved for long time

Developed more in Corn. Why?

• Seed kernels capable of storing plantibodies in a low moisture environment

• High concentration of protease inhibitors

• Can be purified by simple milling technique

• Staple food crop of many countries

Are the plantibodies so beneficial?

YES. . . . .

• Better than other transgenic foods

* edible vaccines for immuno deficiency patients

* nutrition foods (NEUTRACEUTICALS)no protein denaturation long storage

• Low cost

• Efficient transformation

• Correct assembly of multimeric proteins

• Safety-does not pose the risk of spreading human

Applications

Human applications

Treatment of dental caries:

• Caused by Streptococcus mutans

• Plantibodies from tobacco plants-proved t provide protection upto 4 months

• Inhibit bacterial attachment to the tooth surface

• Prevent colonisation in the human body

• Opsonises the S.mutans facilitating phagocytosis

• Treatment of STD’s:

• Genital herpes:

• With a topical gel containing plantibodies against herpes type1&2 viruses

• Proved to be effective when applied to the vagina of mice

• Anti-HSV (Herpes simplex virus)

• Produced in soya beans

• Anti-HIV (Human immuno deficiency virus)

Plant applications

Against virus infections:

• Other transgenic plants by expressing viral coat protein genes -interfere the viral replications

• But the risk is the presence of viral DNA sequences present in human food stuffs

• So plantibody technology is an alternative approach

• F8 antibody - Against Artichoke Mottled Crinkle Virus (AMCV) coat protein - in Nicotiana benthamiana

• Against nematodes:

Enzymes in the saliva – targets for plantibodies

• Prevent root localisation

• Interfere with the formation and maintenance of the feeding site of nematodes

• Target the proteins that initiates the nematode cell cycle

Achievements

Epicyte – presently clinical trails

- Exclusive licence for plantibody technology

- Topical gel against herpes 1&2 virus

- Treatment of dental caries in Rhesus monkeys

- F8 plantibodies against AMCV

- Hepatitis B –virus in tobacco plants being investigated

- Topical gel against HSV in soya beans.

Scope and Future

- Plants : factory systems for the production of monoclonal antibodies

- Medication A solution to problematic in under devoloped nations

- Formulation of plantibody based topical contraceptives

- Investigations about

• acute pulmonary infection- by Respiratory Synctial virus

• Diarrohea – by Clostridium difficille

• Hope to produce plantibodies against HIV – the major threat to the world human life.

Conclusion

• Production of plantibodies in plants has numerous applications not only in the pharmaceutical industries but also the plant breeder

• The plantibody technology holds a lot of promise for the future hopefully contributing to the treatment of many diseases.