Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +44-7360-538437

Commentary - Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology (2022) Volume 6, Issue 6

Phamaceutical practice and educational studies for campylobacter infection.

Novoka Rabella*

Department of Microbiology, University of Chicago, United states.

*Corresponding Author:
Novoka Rabella
Department of Microbiology,
University of Chicago,
United states
E-mail:[email protected]

Received: 24-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. AAJIDMM-22-128; Editor assigned: 26-Oct-2022, PreQC No. AAJIDMM-22-128(PQ); Reviewed: 09-Nov-2022, QC No. AAJIDMM-22-128; Revised: 14-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. AAJIDMM-22-128(R); Published:21-Nov-2022, DOI:10.35841/ aajidmm-6.6.128

Citation: Rabella N, Phamaceutical practice and educational studies for campylobacter infection. J Infect Dis Med Microbiol; 6(6):128

Abstract

Campylobacter has become one of the most important foodborne pathogens in recent years, even in high-income countries. Especially in Europe, campylobacteriosis is his most commonly reported foodborne illness since 2005, and in the United States he is his second most reported, followed by infection by Salmonella spp. Campylobacter is a commensal microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract of many wild animals birds such as ducks and seagulls, domestic animals cows and pigs, and domestic animals e.g. dogs and cats, and is a cause of zoonotic diseases. Recently, many Campylobacter cases isolated from human infections have shown significant resistance to various antibiotics, such as tetracycline’s and fluoroquinolones. For these reasons, prevention of this infection plays an important role. There are many preventive measures to limit pathogen transmission and consequent illness, including health surveillance throughout the production chain, poultry vaccination and good food hygiene.

Abstract

Campylobacter has become one of the most important foodborne pathogens in recent years, even in high-income countries. Especially in Europe, campylobacteriosis is his most commonly reported foodborne illness since 2005, and in the United States he is his second most reported, followed by infection by Salmonella spp. Campylobacter is a commensal microorganism in the gastrointestinal tract of many wild animals birds such as ducks and seagulls, domestic animals cows and pigs, and domestic animals e.g. dogs and cats, and is a cause of zoonotic diseases. Recently, many Campylobacter cases isolated from human infections have shown significant resistance to various antibiotics, such as tetracycline’s and fluoroquinolones. For these reasons, prevention of this infection plays an important role. There are many preventive measures to limit pathogen transmission and consequent illness, including health surveillance throughout the production chain, poultry vaccination and good food hygiene.

Keywords

Campylobacter, Food poisoning bacteria, Epidemiology.

Introduction

The Campylobacter genus has long been recognized as the most common causative agent of human enteritis and gastroenteritis in both adult and pediatric patients. In recent years, cases of campylobacteriosis in high-income countries have exceeded those caused by classical enter bacteria. This organism is isolated from patients with gastrointestinal infections approximately 3–4 times more frequently than Salmonella or E. coli. Among low- and middle-income individuals, sparse data suggest that the prevalence of Campylobacter infection has increased in recent years [1].

Due to the sporadic nature of infection and the important role of cross-contamination, it is often difficult to trace the source of exposure to Campylobacter. For these reasons, many countries have taken a number of important preventive measures over the past decade to avoid these foodborne infections. Furthermore, recent scientific advances such as the complete sequencing of microbial genomes, new insights into the etiology of infection, and understanding of the role of immunity in protection against Campylobacter infection] have contributed to the understanding of appropriate etiological vaccines and helped guide the assessment and management of risks along the farm-to-fork chain [2,].

Nevertheless, campylobacteriosis remains a difficult disease and infection to prevent .All species except C. gracilis synthesizes the enzyme oxidase. They do not ferment or oxidize carbohydrates, but instead derive energy from amino or tricarboxylic acids. Campylobacter species can grow at pH values between 6.5 and 7.5 and temperatures between 37° and 42°C. For this reason, some authors call it thermophilic. However, Levin suggests that these microbes are not truly thermophilic and cannot grow at temperatures above 55°C, hence they are more correctly termed 'thermos table.' In addition, since it lacks genes encoding heat shock proteins that play a role in adapting to low temperatures, it cannot grow at temperatures below 30°C [3].

Epidemiological variables influencing the have are pertinent to the spread of microorganisms remembering the quantities of vulnerable people for a geologically characterized region, the vicinity of the people to one another and to the wellspring of disease, and the presence of different elements important for the transmission of contamination, like the right environment or season, the presence of a fundamental arthropod vector, and so on. These and different variables are examined where pertinent in the ensuing parts where irregular, endemic or scourge diseases are depicted [4].

EPIDEMIOLOGY Campylobacter was again the most frequently reported gastrointestinal pathogen in the European Union (EU) in 2013. The number of confirmed cases reported was 214,779, with an EU reporting rate of 64.8/100,000, the same level as in 2012. Mortality was low. A total of 31.4% of the fresh chicken samples tested were positive for Campylobacter. The increase in Campylobacter-positive samples from 2012 to 2013 was largely due to the placement of data from Croatia, where he first reported results in 2013. Campylobacter was also uncommonly detected in turkey meat and other foods. In 2013, 414 Campylobacter outbreaks were also reported. The sources of these outbreaks, in order of importance, were poultry and other foods such as dairy products, milk and mixed foods [5].

References

  1. Skirrow MB.Campylobacter enteritis: a" new" disease.Br Med J. 1977; 2; 2(6078):9-11.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Figura N, Guglielmetti P..Clinical characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni and C coli enteritis.The Lancet. 1988 23; 331(8591):942-3.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Caprioli A, Pezzella C.Enteropathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in Italy.The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 1996; 1; 15(10):876-83.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Hue O, Allain V.Campylobacter contamination of broiler caeca and carcasses at the slaughterhouse and correlation with Salmonella contamination.Food Microbiol. 2011; 1; 28(5):862-8.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Platts-Mills JA, Kosek M.Update on the burden of Campylobacter in developing countries.Current opinion in infectious diseases. 2014; 27(5):444.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App

Vizag Tech Summit