Journal of Fisheries Research

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Perspective - Journal of Fisheries Research (2021) Volume 5, Issue 4

Overview of benthos.

Yuxin Ma*

Department of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

Corresponding Author:
Yuxin Ma
Department of Oceanography
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai
China
E-mail: [email protected]

Accepted date: 03 July, 2021

Citation: Ma Y. Overview of benthos. J Fish Res 2021;5(4):21.

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Abstract

Benthos is the community of organisms that lives in, on or near the seabed. The place where they live is called as benthic zone. Worms, cams, sponge, snails etc are some of the benthic organisms that live near marine sedimentary environments such as rocky shores, coral reef, deep seas. The term benthos is a Greek word which means “depths of the sea” that refers to the organisms that live near bottom of the sea.

About the Study

Benthos is the community of organisms that lives in, on or near the seabed. The place where they live is called as benthic zone. Worms, cams, sponge, snails etc are some of the benthic organisms that live near marine sedimentary environments such as rocky shores, coral reef, deep seas. The term benthos is a Greek word which means “depths of the sea” that refers to the organisms that live near bottom of the sea.

Types of Benthos

Benthic community is diversified from species including animals, plants and bacteria from wide range of food chain. These can be classified on the different bias.

• Substratum

• Size

• Type

• Location

• Mobility

Substratum

These are of two types Infauna, Epifauna.

• Organisms such as fire worm, giant clam that lives in the sediments are called as Infauna.

• Organisms such as Sponge, oysters, mussels are either attached to bottom or substrate of the seabed is called as Epifauna.

Size

By size these are classified into Macrobenthos, meiobenthos, microbenthos.

• Macro benthos are large organisms living on or near bottom of the water. They are larger than 1 mm in size. Examples are sea grass, Echinoderms, sponges etc.

• Meiobenthos are an organism that lives in the bottom of both fresh and marine water ecosystem. The size varies between 0.1 mm and 1 mm. Examples are Water bears, Gastrotricha etc.

• Microbenthos are tiny organisms that lives in, or and near the bottom of the water body. They are smaller than 0.1 mm. Examples are Amoeba, bacteria.

Type

By type they are classified into two types they are zoobentos, Phytobenthos.

• Benthos those are of animal origin are called as zoobenthos. Examples are star fish, oysters etc.

• Benthos those are of plant origin are called as phytobenthos. Examples are sea weeds, sea grass etc.

Location

By location they are classified into three types they are Endobenthos, Epibenthos, Hyperbenthos

• Benthos which uses bottom of the sediments as habitats is called as Endobenthos. Examples are sea pen, sand dollar etc.

• Benthos which uses top of the sediments as their habitat is called as Epibenthos. Examples are sea snail, sea cucumber etc.

• Benthos that floats around the sediments is called as Hyperbenthos.

Mobility

By Mobility they are classified into two types they are sessible benthos, vagrant benthos.

• Sessible benthos will not have any mobility attached or fixed with substratum. Examples are corals, Benthic algae etc.

• Vagrant benthos have locomotory powers. They can either move rapidly or slowly. Examples are sting ray, crab etc.

Advantages of Benthos

• Benthos serves as primary source of food for many species such as fishes.

• They are indicators of water quality check

• They are sensitive to environment impacts

Disadvantages of Benthos

• Damage to structurally complex habitats

• Damage to epifauna and infauna.

• It attracts scavengers.

Conclusion

Benthos plays an important role in Aquatic ecosystem as bio indicators. They represent all the tropical levels of food chain as producers, consumers and decomposers.

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