Journal of Oral Medicine and Surgery

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Opinion Article - Journal of Oral Medicine and Surgery (2023) Volume 6, Issue 4

Oral pathology: A comprehensive overview of oral diseases.

Shin Kurose*

Department of Clinical Research for Women, Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium

*Corresponding Author:
Shin Kurose
Department of Clinical Research for Women
Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium

Received: 29-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AAOMT-23-105153; Editor assigned: 3-Jul-2023, PreQC No. AAOMT-23-105153(PQ); Reviewed: 15-Jul-2023, QC No. AAOMT-23-105153; Revised: 21-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AAOMT-23-105153(R); Published: 26-Jul-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aaomt - 6.4.160

Citation: Kurose S. Oral pathology: A comprehensive overview of oral diseases. J Oral Med Surg. 2023;6(4):160

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Oral pathology is a specialized field of dentistry that focuses on the study, diagnosis, and management of diseases and abnormalities affecting the oral and maxillofacial region. It plays a crucial role in identifying and treating various conditions, ranging from common oral infections to potentially malignant or malignant lesions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of oral diseases commonly encountered in oral pathology practice [1].

Dental Caries: Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay or cavities, is one of the most prevalent oral diseases. It results from the demineralization of tooth structures due to acid-producing bacteria in dental plaque. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and lead to tooth loss. Treatment involves removing the decayed tissue and restoring the tooth with dental materials.

Periodontal Diseases: Periodontal diseases affect the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Gingivitis is the early stage of periodontal disease, characterized by inflamed and bleeding gums. If left untreated, it can progress to periodontitis, involving the destruction of the periodontal tissues. Management includes oral hygiene practices, professional dental cleanings, and sometimes surgical intervention [2].

Oral Infections: Various infections can affect the oral cavity, including viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. Common examples include oral herpes (caused by the herpes simplex virus), oral candidiasis (yeast infection), and bacterial infections like dental abscesses. Treatment depends on the specific infection and may involve antiviral, antifungal, or antibiotic medications.

Oral Precancerous Lesions: Precancerous lesions are tissue changes that have the potential to progress to oral cancer if not appropriately managed. Examples include leukoplakia (white patches) and erythroplakia (red patches). Biopsy and histopathological examination are often necessary to determine the risk of malignant transformation and guide treatment.

Oral Cancer: Oral cancer refers to the abnormal growth of cells in the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, cheeks, and floor of the mouth. It is often associated with risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol use, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and sun exposure. Early detection is crucial for successful treatment. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these modalities [3].

Salivary Gland Disorders: Salivary gland disorders encompass various conditions affecting the salivary glands, including infections, obstructive diseases (such as salivary stones), and autoimmune disorders (like Sjögren's syndrome). Treatment depends on the specific disorder and may involve antibiotics, sialagogues, or surgical intervention.

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorders: TMJ disorders involve the dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint, leading to pain, clicking or popping sounds, and limited jaw movement. Causes can include trauma, malocclusion, bruxism (teeth grinding), or arthritis. Treatment may involve lifestyle modifications, medication, physical therapy, or, in severe cases, surgery.

Benign Tumors and Cysts: Oral pathology also deals with the diagnosis and management of various benign tumors and cysts that can occur in the oral cavity. Examples include fibromas, papillomas, odontogenic cysts, and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Treatment often involves surgical excision to remove the lesion and prevent recurrence [4].

Genetic Disorders: Some oral diseases are associated with genetic disorders, such as hereditary gingival fibromatosis, amelogenesis imperfecta (enamel defects), or dentinogenesis imperfecta (dentin defects). Treatment focuses on managing the symptoms and complications associated with these conditions, often requiring a multidisciplinary approach involving dental specialists and medical professionals.

Systemic Conditions with Oral Manifestations: Certain systemic conditions can present with oral manifestations. For example, autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and pemphigus vulgaris can cause oral ulcers and blistering. Proper diagnosis and management involve collaboration with medical specialists to address the underlying systemic condition [5].


Oral pathology encompasses the study, diagnosis, and management of a wide range of oral diseases and abnormalities. From dental caries and periodontal diseases to oral cancer and genetic disorders, oral pathologists play a vital role in identifying and treating these conditions. Early detection, accurate diagnosis through biopsy and histopathological examination, and appropriate treatment planning are essential for ensuring positive patient outcomes. Through interdisciplinary collaboration with other dental and medical professionals, oral pathologists contribute to the comprehensive care of patients with oral diseases, promoting oral health and overall well-being.


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