Commentary - Journal of Public Health Policy and Planning (2020) Volume 4, Issue 5
Obesity and Over Weight: Impact on Public Health.Suhasini Salivendra*
Department of Biotechnology, Bhopal University, Madhya Pradesh, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Suhasini Salivendra
Department of Biotechnology
Bhopal University, Madhya Pradesh, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Obesity is defined as accumulation of excessive fat that may impact on health. .According to World Health Organization, the rate of obesity is increasing day by day.The percentage is increasing tripled between 1975 and 2016. It is estimated in 2019, 38.2 million children suffering from obesity under the age of 5 years. Obesity commonly seen in high-income country, but now a days, it is rise in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban areas. According to reports almost half of the children age 5 years who were overweight or obese in 2019 lived in Asia.
Now a days Obesity is a common and underestimated condition of health importance in many countries around the world. Obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease as well as gall bladder disease, certain cancers like endometrial, breast, prostate, colon and non-fatal conditions including gout, respiratory conditions, gastroesophageal reflux disease and infertility. Obesity also carries serious complications on both physical and mental health issues.
Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. It is defined as a person's weight in kilograms divided by the square of his height in meters (kg/m2). The body mass index (BMI) is a simple method used parameter to classify overweight and obesity. Obesity is classified on the basis of various degrees of adiposity. Adiposity is derived from the weight of the individual in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres (kg/m2). According to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria, a BMI <18.5kg/m2 is considered underweight, 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 ideal weight and 25–29.9kg/m2 overweight or pre-obese. The obese category is sub-divided into obese class I (30–34.9kg/m2), obese class II (35–39.9kg/m2) and obese class III (≥40kg/m2). A BMI greater than 28kg/m2 in adults is associated with a three to four-fold greater risk of morbidity due to T2DM and CVDs than in the general population.
The main cause of obesity and overweight is an imbalance between calories consumed (physical exercise) and calories used. Globally, increased intake of energy-rich foods that are high in fat and sugars; and a decrease in physical activity due to the sedentary nature of many forms of work, changing modes of living style, transportation, and increasing urbanization.
In low- and middle-income countries, these children are exposed to high-fat content ood like bugur and pizza, highsugar, high-salt, and micronutrient-poor foods, which tend to be lower in cost but also, lower in nutrient quality. These dietary patterns with lower levels of physical activity result increases in childhood obesity but while undernutrition issues remain unsolved.
The food intake can play a significant role in adult healthy diets by taking low fat diet, low sugar content and low sodium content and avoid o take processed foods. Ensuring the availability of healthy food choices and regular physical activity practice and exercises and do active in the workplace.