Journal of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases

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Commentary - Journal of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (2022) Volume 7, Issue 5

New observations in regenerative medicine on Intestinal Stem Cells (ISCs).

Amar Dev*

Department of Gastroenterology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, AP, India

*Corresponding Author:
Amar Dev
Department of Gastroenterology
Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences
Tirupati, AP, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 04-May-2022, Manuscript No. JGDD-22-65753; Editor assigned: 06-May-2022, PreQC No. JGDD-22-65753(PQ); Reviewed: 20-May-2022, QC No. JGDD-22-65753; Revised: 24-May-2022, Manuscript No. JGDD-22-65753(R); Published: 27-May-2022, DOI:10.35841/jgdd-7.5.123

Citation: Dev A. New observations in regenerative medicine on Intestinal Stem Cells (ISCs). J Gastroenterology Dig Dis. 2022;7(5):123

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Abstract

Stem cell applications in tissue engineering will show considerable potential in producing custommade tissue/organs for clinical use. This paper covers a wide range of stem cell-based tissue engineering topics, such as neuron repair, cardiac patches, skin regeneration, gene therapy, and cartilage tissue engineering. This study is meant to be an educational resource for scientists and physicians working in disciplines other than stem cells and tissue engineering. It will offer information on various stem cell-based target tissue/organ repair techniques. Stem cells are undifferentiated or partially differentiated cells in multicellular animals that can specialise into many types of cells and multiply endlessly to produce additional stem cells. They are the most primitive cells in a cell lineage. They can be found in both embryonic and adult organisms, but their characteristics differ slightly. Progenitor cells, which cannot divide endlessly, and precursor or blast cells, which are normally dedicated to developing into one cell type, are commonly distinguished

Keywords

Regenerative medicine, Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, Human embryonic development.

Introduction

During the blastocyst stage of embryonic development, during days 5–14, 50–150 cells make up the inner cell mass in mammals. These have stem cell potential. In the body, they eventually differentiate into all cell kinds (making them pluripotent). The differentiation of the three germ layers – ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm – begins during the gastrulation stage. They can be preserved in the stem-cell stage when isolated and cultured in vitro, and are known as embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Adult stem cells can only be found in a few habitats throughout the body, such as the bone marrow or the gonads. They are multipotent or unipotent, meaning they only differentiate into a few cell types or one type of cell, and they exist to replenish rapidly lost cell types. Hematopoietic stem cells, which replace blood and immune cells, basal cells, which maintain the skin epithelium, and mesenchymal stem cells, which maintain the bone marrow, are examples of these cells in mammals. In the 1960s, Canadian biologists Ernest McCulloch, James Till, and Andrew J. Becker discovered stem cells at the University of Toronto and the Ontario Cancer Institute. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, originally conducted in 1958 by French oncologist Georges Mathé, is the only established medical therapy involving stem cells as of 2016. However, human embryonic stem cells have been cultured and differentiated since 1998 (in stem-cell lines). Isolating these cells has been contentious since it usually necessitates the destruction of the embryo. Some European countries and Canada have prohibited ESC isolation sources, while others, such as the United Kingdom and China, have encouraged it. Nuclear transfer from somatic cells is a procedure.

In practise, stem cells are classified according to their ability to regenerate tissue. The capacity to transplant bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and save an individual lacking HSCs, for example, is a distinguishing test for these cells. This shows that the cells can continue to make new blood cells throughout time. It should also be possible to separate stem cells from the transplanted person, which can then be transplanted into another person who does not have HSCs, proving that the stem cell can self-renew [1].

In vitro, stem cell properties can be demonstrated utilising methods such as clonogenic tests, which evaluate single cells for their ability to differentiate and self-renew. Stem cells can also be distinguished by a set of characteristics [2].

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the cells that make up a blastocyst's inner cell mass before it is implanted in the uterus. The blastocyst stage of human embryonic development occurs 4–5 days after fertilisation and comprises of 50–150 cells. ESCs are pluripotent, meaning they can develop into any of the three germ layers' descendants during development. In other words, given sufficient and necessary stimulation, they can develop into any of the more than 200 cell types found in the adult body. They have no effect on extraembryonic membranes or the placenta [3-7].

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