Perspective - Journal of RNA and Genomics (2023) Volume 19, Issue 3
New biomedical analysis techniques using functional DNAs.
- *Corresponding Author:
- Cuiling Zhishan
Department of Chemistry,
East China Normal University,
Shanghai 200241, China
Received: 26-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. RNAI-23-103119; Editor assigned: 28-Apr-2023, Pre QC No. RNAI-23-103119(PQ); Reviewed: 12-May-2023, QC No. RNAI-23-103119; Revised: 19-May-2023, Manuscript No. RNAI-23-103119(R); Published: 29-May-2023, DOI:10.4172/2591-7781.1000154.
Citation: Zhishan C. New biomedical analysis techniques using functional DNAs. J RNA Genomics 2023;19(3):1.
Functional DNAs, a class of synthetic DNA molecules with specific structural and functional properties, have revolutionized biomedical analysis. These engineered DNA sequences go beyond their traditional role as carriers of genetic information and exhibit unique functionalities, making them invaluable tools in various areas of study.
Functional DNAs have significantly contributed to the field of diagnostics by enabling sensitive and specific detection of disease markers. For example, aptamers, which are singlestranded Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) or Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) molecules, can be engineered to bind to specific target molecules, such as proteins or small molecules. This property allows aptamers to serve as molecular recognition elements in biosensors, facilitating the detection of biomarkers associated with diseases. Additionally, DNA nanotechnology-based sensors, such as DNA origami, offer programmable and versatile platforms for the development of diagnostic assays with high sensitivity and multiplexing capabilities.
Functional DNAs have also found applications in therapeutics, particularly in the field of gene therapy and drug delivery. DNA-based nanocarriers can be designed to encapsulate and protect therapeutic agents, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or drugs, and deliver them to target cells or tissues. These nanocarriers can be functionalized with targeting ligands to enhance specificity and efficiency. Furthermore, DNA enzymes, synthetic DNA enzymes, can be designed to specifically cleave target RNA molecules, providing a potential strategy for targeted gene regulation and inhibition of disease-causing gene expression.
Functional DNAs have played a pivotal role in the development of biosensing platforms and nanotechnologybased devices. DNA-based sensors can be engineered to detect various analytes, including nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. By utilizing the programmable nature of DNA, these sensors can be designed with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal amplification capabilities. In addition, DNA nanotechnology offers a powerful approach for constructing nanostructures with precise control over size, shape, and functionalization. DNA origami, for instance, allows the assembly of complex nanostructures and devices for applications in drug delivery, imaging, and sensing.
Significant advancements in functional DNA analysis have expanded their applications and capabilities. Various modifications and functionalizations, such as base modifications, aptamer conjugation, and incorporation of other biomolecules, have enhanced the stability, specificity, and functionality of functional DNAs. Additionally, the integration of functional DNAs with other nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles or graphene, has led to hybrid systems with improved performance and multifunctionality.
Future scope of functional DNA analysis involves, exploring their potential in personalized medicine, targeted therapeutics, and regenerative medicine. Moreover, advancements in DNA nanotechnology have scope for the development of novel nanodevices, nanorobots, and smart materials with applications in precision medicine and tissue engineering.
Functional DNAs have emerged as versatile tools in biomedical analysis, contributing to advancements in diagnostics, therapeutics, biosensing, and nanotechnology. Their unique properties and design flexibility have enabled the development of innovative platforms for disease detection, targeted drug delivery, and construction of nanoscale devices. With continued analysis and technological advancements, functional DNAs are likely to play a significant role in the future of biomedical sciences, providing novel solutions for diagnostics, treatment, and understanding of complex biological systems.