Journal Clinical Psychiatry and Cognitive Psychology

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Opinion Article - Journal Clinical Psychiatry and Cognitive Psychology (2023) Volume 7, Issue 2

Neuropsychopharmacology: Understanding the Effects of Drugs on the Brain and Behavior

Patrick Mair*

Department of Psychology

*Corresponding Author:
Patrick Mair
Department of Psychology
University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK

Received:16-May-2023, Manuscript No. AACPCP-23-90279; Editor assigned:19-May-2023, PreQC No. AACPCP-23-90279(PQ); Reviewed:02-Jun-2023, QC No. AACPCP-23-90279; Revised:06-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AACPCP-23-90279(R); Published:13-Jun-2023, DOI:10.35841/aaicr-7.2.137

Citation: Mair P.Neuropsychopharmacology: understanding the effects of drugs on the brain and behavior. J Clin Psychiatry Cog Psychol. 2023;7(2):137


Nine papers addressed the assessment of individual characteristics and behaviors relevant to health and illness. Within the field of psychosomatic disorders, Iranian researchers tested the psychometric properties of the Farsi version of Perth Alexithymia Questionnaire (PAQ). Based on CFA results, the 5-factor model of the original PAQ replicated well on data from college students, with adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Evidence of associations with other variables (TAS-20, emotion regulation, depression, anxiety) was collected for the Farsi PAQ.

The Work-Related Rumination Scale was tested on a sample of Puerto Rican workers. An 11-item Spanish version with three factors (affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, and detachment) was obtained using CFA and ESEM and proved to be invariant across gender and age within and between five different study samples. Reliability coefficients were satisfactory, and correlations with relevant criterion measures (e.g., sleep quality, emotional exhaustion) provided evidence of convergent and divergent validity.

As to individual beliefs and expectations, one article presented a Chinese adaptation of the Self-Objectification Beliefs and Behaviors Scale (C-SOBBS). As a result of exposure to sexual objectification in interpersonal situations and visual media, self-objectification entails viewing one's own body from a third person's perspective and has been linked to poorer women's mental health. The authors found evidence of structural (CFA), convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity, and adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the C-SOBBS. In another paper, Chinese researchers proposed the development and validation of the Psychological Needs of Cancer Patients Scale to identify the psychological care demands of cancer patients. Results of EFA and CFA supported a six-factor model of value and esteem, independence and control, mental care, disease care, belonging and companionship, and security, with acceptable reliability and expected associations with anxiety and depression [1].

Two articles addressed situation-specific coping. The Robust Pandemic Coping Scale (R-PCS) was developed to assess coping strategies related to pandemic situations at all stages of the epidemic management cycle. Data from Italian university students were analyzed via EFA and CFA, followed by Rasch analysis. A four-factor model of despair, adjustment, proactivity, and aversion was supported, which was invariant across gender and age and showed adequate reliability. Discriminant and criterion-related validity based on correlations with personality characteristics helpful in coping with disasters and predictive validity on levels of enjoyment and anger 2 months later were also supported. To assess coping strategies to deal with cancer, researchers from Portugal performed a cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Perceived Ability to Cope with Trauma Scale (PACT). Results of CFA on data from patients recently diagnosed with early breast cancer supported the original PACT two-factor model of coping flexibility as composed of forward and trauma focus domains, which showed adequate internal consistency and associations in the expected direction with self-efficacy to cope with cancer, quality of life and psychological distress [2].

In the area of health-related attitudes, Chilean researchers developed a brief scale to assess the affective, cognitive, and behavioral attitudes of youth and young adults toward condom use. Using EFA and ESEM, the authors found support for the hypothesized three-factor model. The scale showed strong invariance across gender, adequate reliability, and expected relationships with sexual risk behaviors and condom use.

Among health-related behaviors, one study tested the psychometric performance of a very brief measure of problematic internet use, namely the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS), when used with Lithuanian medical students and resident doctors. Results indicated that the brief, 5-, 7-, and 9-item versions of the CIUS were reliable and valid screening tools to assess the severity of symptoms of problematic internet use in the medical population. Another brief, 6-item scale of excessive use of social networks was adapted for use with Mexican adolescents and young adults. Altogether, the structural properties of the response options fitted the partial-credit model. CFA supported a single domain of addiction to social networks, with measurement invariance across sex, age, and educational campus, good internal consistency, and theoretically consistent associations with sensation seeking and depression [3].

Culture Affects the Dimensional Structure of Traits

Interactionism has forever been vital to character research yet conventional organic hypotheses concede just a tight scope of situational factors, like presence and force of positive and negative reinforcers. Inside quality character itself, this view is tested by concentrates on showing that setting explicit measures, for example, those for work self-adequacy and evaluative tensions are many times more prescient in-setting than general measures. Inside friendly brain science, a significant commitment is the distinguishing proof of "conduct marks" as components of character consistency, i.e., on the off chance that connections that determine the person's run of the mill mental, full of feeling and conduct responses to explicit social settings. Records of story character give one more method for grasping security of character according to a social viewpoint. In this way, the social-mental viewpoint upgrades the limit of quality models to deal with situational factors [4].

Health Outcomes

A total of eight papers focused on assessing outcomes of the interactive relationships between biological, environmental, and psychological/behavioral factors. Two papers focused on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is a primary outcome in the evaluation of interventions' effectiveness on people's health. One article presented the traditional Chinese version of the Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) outcome measure. The ReQoL measures mental health recovery, defined as a self-directed process of healing and transformation, which has received increasing attention in evaluating the outcomes of mental care. The Chinese ReQoL showed good psychometric properties in terms of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure (CFA), known-group validity, and associations with relevant variables in the general population [5].


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