Opinion Article - Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Allied Science (2023) Volume 7, Issue 1
Milk production losses occur in animals by arthropods borne viral diseases.
Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
- Corresponding Author:
- Sarah Burnet
Department of Veterinary Pathology
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
Received: 03-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AAVMAS-23-86384; Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2023, PreQC No. AAVMAS-23-86384(PQ); Reviewed: 19-Jan-2023, QC No. AAVMAS-23-86384; Revised: 23-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AAVMAS-23-86384(R); Published: 30-Jan-2023, DOI:10.35841/2591-7978-7.1.135
Citation: Burnet S. Milk production losses occur in animals by arthropods borne viral diseases. J Vet Med Allied Sci. 2023;7(1):135
Bovine ephemeral fever is an arthropod-borne viral disease that causes milk production losses, recumbency, and, in some cases, death in cattle and water buffalo. In Cape buffalo, hartebeest, waterbuck, wildebeest, deer, and possibly goats, sheep, and gazelles, latent infections can develop. Low antibody levels have been found in several other antelope species, giraffes, and even pigs and elephants. The virus is transmitted by hematophagous arthropods and replicates in them; it has been isolated from both culicoids and mosquitos. Other species in the genus are not recognised as animal pathogens, but they have been isolated from healthy sentinel cattle and have been shown to infect cattle.
Water buffalo typically exhibit milder clinical signs. Cattle that are affected may become recumbent and paralysed for a few hours to a week. Following recovery, milk production may not return to normal levels until the following lactation . Abortions have been reported in anecdotal form. This could be an unintended consequence of the disease, as the virus does not appear to cross the placenta or affect cow fertility. Bulls, heavy cattle, and high-lactating dairy cows appear to be the most severely affected, but spontaneous recovery typically occurs within a few days. In bulls, decreased muscle mass and fertility may result in more subtle losses. Domestic cattle and buffalo are the only ruminants with clinical disease, but a variety of other ruminants appear to be susceptible to subclinical infection . Ephemeral fever is a seasonal disease that occurs in enzootic areas during the summer and autumn, particularly during the rainy season. Bovine ephemeral fever virus is most likely transmitted by arthropod vectors, which have yet to be identified.
The disease's pathogenesis is complicated, and it most likely reflects pathophysiologic and immunologic effects mediated by the release and activity of various inflammatory mediators . Bovine ephemeral fever is caused by injury to the endothelial lining of small blood vessels, but there is no evidence that the virus causes widespread tissue destruction . As with all biological vectors, there are safety concerns that have been addressed. Attenuated strains of both viruses have been created through molecular and virological manipulations. The viral glycoprotein, which can be modified, substituted with other glycoproteins, or deleted, is a major focus of attenuation. Other viral gene products that contribute to virulence, such as the phophosprotein, have also been modified. Arboviruses are spread from one vertebrate host to another by bloodsucking arthropods. The vector becomes infected for life after ingesting blood from a viremic vertebrate. The viruses multiply in the arthropod tissues without causing disease or damage. Some arboviruses survive in the wild due to transovarian transmission in arthropods .
Mosquitoes, fleas, sand flies, lice, fleas, ticks, and mites are examples of arthropod vectors. Arthropods transmit parasites either directly into the host's bloodstream via their salivary glands, or by forcing parasites into a pool of blood that forms when chewing the skin. Most affected animals resume eating and drinking during their recovery. Animals may fall, with heavy animals in good condition being the most vulnerable. Some animals remain down due to muscle damage or spinal cord damage caused by constant struggle. Rodent-borne viral diseases persist in nature through direct intraspecies or interspecies transmission from rodent to rodent, with no involvement of arthropod vectors . In most cases, viral infection is chronic. Contact with bodily fluids or excretions causes transmission. Arboviral diseases are caused by viruses that are transmitted in cycles between vertebrate hosts and blood-sucking arthropods like mosquitoes, sandflies, midges, and ticks. To complete the transmission cycle, the virus must produce enough viremia in the vertebrate host for a susceptible arthropod to become infected while feeding on blood.
- Jackwood DJ. Advances in vaccine research against economically important viral diseases of food animals: Infectious bursal disease virus. Vet Microbiol. 2017;206:121-5.
- Panoutsakopoulou V, Sanchirico ME, Huster KM, et al. Analysis of the relationship between viral infection and autoimmune disease. Immunity. 2001;15(1):137-47.
- Belak S, Thoren P, LeBlanc N, et al. Advances in viral disease diagnostic and molecular epidemiological technologies. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2009;9(4):367-81.
- Balamurugan V, Venkatesan G, Sen A, et al. Recombinant protein-based viral disease diagnostics in veterinary medicine. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2010;10(6):731-53.
- Fray MD, Paton DJ, Alenius S. The effects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus on cattle reproduction in relation to disease control. Anim Reprod Sci. 2000;60:615-27.
- Sanchez-Campos S, Alvarez M, Culebras JM, et al. Pathogenic molecular mechanisms in an animal model of fulminant hepatic failure: rabbit hemorrhagic viral disease. J Lab Clin Med. 2004;144(4):215-22.