Mini Review - Journal of Cell Science and Mutations (2023) Volume 7, Issue 4
Methods and techniques for tissue homogenization: A comprehensive review.Daniel Zhang*
Department of Plant Physiology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
- *Corresponding Author:
- Daniel Zhang
Department of Plant Physiology
Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Received: 07-July-2023, Manuscript No. AAACSM-23-105267; Editor assigned: 08-July-2023, PreQC No. AAACSM -23-105267 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-July-2023, QC No AAACSM -23-105267; Revised: 23-July-2023,Manuscript No. AAACSM -23-105267 (R);Published: 30-July-2023, DOI: 10.35841/ aaacsm-7.4.152
Citation: Zhang D. Methods and techniques for tissue homogenization: A comprehensive review. J Cell Sci Mut. 2023;7(4):152
Tissue homogenization is a critical process in biological research that allows scientists to break down complex tissues into homogeneous mixtures, enabling the isolation and analysis of specific components. It plays a crucial role in studying cellular functions, identifying disease markers, and developing therapeutic interventions. In this comprehensive review, we will explore various methods and techniques employed in tissue homogenization, highlighting their principles, advantages, and considerations .
The traditional method involves grinding tissues with a mortar and pestle. While simple and cost-effective, it requires manual effort and may not be suitable for larger sample sizes. It is commonly used for soft tissues or when gentle disruption is desired.High-speed blenders are used to mechanically disrupt tissues. This method is quick and effective, suitable for a wide range of tissue types. However, it may generate heat and lead to protein denaturation if prolonged blending is performed .
Tissues are mixed with small beads and subjected to mechanical agitation. Bead mills offer high throughput and efficient disruption of a wide range of tissues. The choice of bead material, size, and agitation speed must be optimized for specific applications.Ultrasonic waves are applied to tissues, causing mechanical disruption through cavitation. This method is non-contact and gentle, preserving delicate molecules. It is often used for heat-sensitive samples or to release cellular components from membranes .
Tissues are subjected to high pressure through a narrow gap using a piston-driven apparatus. This technique efficiently disrupts cells and yields high-quality homogenates. However, temperature control is crucial to prevent heat-induced damage.Tissues are forced through a narrow gap or small orifices at high pressure. This method offers reproducible and scalable disruption, suitable for large-scale applications. It is commonly used for plant tissues and microbial cells .
Enzymes, such as collagenase or trypsin, are used to digest tissues, breaking down extracellular matrix components and releasing cells. This method allows for the isolation of specific cell populations and is frequently employed in cell culture experiments or cell sorting procedures.Detergents, such as Triton X-100 or NP-40, disrupt cell membranes and solubilize cellular components. This technique is useful for isolating membrane-bound proteins or organelles. Care must be taken to optimize detergent concentration to avoid interference with downstream analyses .
Proper sample handling and storage are essential to maintain sample integrity before homogenization. The choice of homogenization method should be based on tissue type, sample size, desired degree of disruption, and downstream applications. Temperature control during homogenization is critical to preserve delicate molecules and prevent heatinduced damage. The choice of buffer, pH, and osmolality should be optimized to maintain cellular stability and prevent degradation. Validation of homogenization efficiency should be performed by assessing the release of target molecules or the disruption of specific cellular structures. Careful consideration should be given to the potential impact of the chosen method on the activity or conformation of the molecules of interest .
Tissue homogenization is a fundamental technique in biological research that allows scientists to break down complex tissues and analyze their components. Various methods and techniques, including mechanical disruption, pressure-based methods, enzymatic digestion, detergent treatment, cryogenic homogenization, and grinding with balls, offer researchers a range of options to suit their specific needs. Understanding the principles, advantages, and considerations of each method is crucial for obtaining high-quality homogenates and ensuring reliable results.
- Tan X., Sullivan M.A., Gao F.,et al,. A new non-degradative method to purify glycogen. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;147:165–170.
- Yu S., Zhang F., Li C., et al,. Molecular structural differences between maize leaf and endosperm starches. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;161:10–15.
- Park S.-H., Wilson J.D., Seabourn B.W. Starch granule size distribution of hard red winter and hard red spring wheat: Its effects on mixing and breadmaking quality. J Cereal Sci 2009;49:98–105.
- Matsushima R., Yamashita J., Kariyama S., et al,. A Phylogenetic Re-evaluation of Morphological Variations of Starch Grains among Poaceae Species. J Appl Glycosci. 2013;60:37–44.
- Saccomanno B., Chambers A.H., Hayes A., et al,. Starch granule morphology in oat endosperm. J Cereal Sci. 2017;73:46–54.
- Maaran S., Hoover R., Donner E., et al,. Composition, structure, morphology and physicochemical properties of lablab bean, navy bean, rice bean, tepary bean and velvet bean starches. Food Chem. 2014;152:491–499.