Perspective - Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Allied Science (2021) Volume 5, Issue 3
Metabolic diseases in cattleâ??s.
Veena Priyadarshini S *
School of Life Sciences, B.S. Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Veena Priyadarshini S
School of Life Sciences
B.S. Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Tel: 9500084421r> E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 18, 2021; Accepted Date: November 28, 2021; Published Date: November 30, 2021
Citation: Veena Priyadarshini S (2021) Metabolic diseases in cattle’s. . J Vet Med Allied Sci 2021, Vol. 5 Iss. 3:3 .
In dairy cows and pregnant ewes, metabolic disorders are highly important. Metabolic disorders only occur infrequently in other cattle animals. The high-producing dairy cow is always on the verge of aberrant homeostasis, and dairy cattle breeding and feeding for high milk outputs is etiologically linked to the metabolic disease that plagues these animals. Parturient paresis (milk fever), hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperketonemia, and ketosis, hyperlipemia, and other illnesses caused by an imbalance between the rates of dietary components input and output are referred to as production diseases. When the imbalance is maintained, the amount of the body's reserves of specific metabolites and their "throughput" may fluctuate. This generalization relates mostly to energy balance (such as ketosis and hypoglycemia) and, to a lesser extent, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia. The transition period is a critical stage in the dairy cow's production cycle; no other time can have such an impact on following production, health, and reproductive performance. The cow's profitability during that lactation is largely determined by the success of the changeover period. During this phase, a cow's capacity to reach maximum milk output may be hampered by nutritional or management constraints. Cows' main problem is an abrupt and significant increase in nutrient requirements for milk production at a time when dry matter consumption, and hence nutrient availability, is far behind. During the final week preceding parturition, dry matter consumption usually decreases.
Parturition is followed by an abrupt initiation of abundant lactation, which can lead to severe metabolic illness if food reserves have already been depleted. The clinical condition that develops is determined by the important metabolite that is lowered below the critical threshold. Understanding the etiologic and epidemiologic factors that contribute to the occurrence and incidence of metabolic disorders is important. The occurrence of metabolic disease fluctuates from season to season and year to year, owing to climate fluctuations. Variations in the forms of sickness develop in the same way. For example, most cases of parturient paresis will be tetanic during some seasons, whereas most cases of ketosis will be worsened by hypocalcemia during others. Furthermore, the prevalence of metabolic disease and the occurrence of various syndromes will vary by area. Ketosis is more likely to occur in locations with limited rainfall and poor pasture. Lactation tetany is more common in colder climates with limited natural cover. It may be possible to design a method to lessen the incidence of diseases by recognizing these factors.
Dairy-Herd Metabolic Profile testing variables for metabolic profile testing, there are five key areas of interest:
• Energy equilibrium
• Protein analysis
• The function of the liver
• Micro-mineral assessment
• Urine analysis
Measurement of analytes in urine has been underutilized in metabolic profile testing in general, and it is obvious that existing testing techniques are not cost-effective. There is currently no biochemical indicator that accurately represents the protein level of dairy animals. Several indices, including milk urea nitrogen and plasma/serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, albumin, and total protein concentrations, have been examined as a result. Milk urea nitrogen concentration in the bulk tank offers the greatest overall picture of protein balance in a dairy herd of all these markers. The concentrations of Plasma Urea Nitrogen (PUN) and Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN) are good indices of protein status, especially when the diet is sufficiently calorie dense. Total bilirubin, cholesterol, and albumin concentrations in the plasma/serum can all be used to measure liver function. In cattle, serum bile acid content is not a reliable indicator of liver function.
Subclinical hypocalcemia, clinical milk fever, hypomagnesemia, and acute hypokalemia are caused by abnormalities in the blood levels of the four macro minerals, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium, in the cow during the transition period. The amounts of calcium in the blood are strictly controlled and are not sensitive markers of input–output balance. The success of periparturient hypocalcemia control programs can be determined by measuring plasma/serum calcium concentrations within the first 24 hours following calving, especially in multiparous dairy cows. Following a protracted period of insufficient inorganic phosphate, serum inorganic phosphate concentrations tend to decline. During the winter, serum magnesium concentrations are often low, and many herds, particularly pregnant beef cattle, have subclinical hypomagnesemia. With an abrupt loss of feed or a drop in environmental temperature, this can be turned into clinical hypomagnesemia. Magnesium salts supplementation in the diet is a protective dietary intake