Journal of Cholesterol and Heart Disease

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (202) 780-3397

Commentary - Journal of Cholesterol and Heart Disease (2023) Volume 7, Issue 3

Lifestyle Factors on the Development and Progression of Coronary Heart Disease

Dongoran Lee *

Department of Biomedical Science, Singapore University of Sciences, Clementi Road, Singapore

*Corresponding Author:
Dongoran Lee
Department of Biomedical Science,
Singapore University of Sciences,
Clementi Road, Singapore

Received: 31-May-2023, Manuscript No. AACHD-23-101705; Editor assigned: 03-Jun-2023, PreQC No. AACHD-23-101705(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Jun-2023, QC No. AACHD-23-101705; Revised: 22-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AACHD-23-101705; Published: 29-Jun-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aachd-7.3.154

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Cholesterol and Heart Disease




Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While genetic predisposition plays a role, lifestyle factors have emerged as key determinants in the development and progression of CHD. Adopting a healthy lifestyle not only reduces the risk of developing CHD but also slows its progression, improving overall cardiovascular health. This article aims to explore the impact of various lifestyle factors on the development and progression of CHD and provides insights into the importance of lifestyle modifications for preventing and managing this condition [1].

The role of diet and nutrition in CHD cannot be overstated. A diet high in saturated and Tran’s fats, cholesterol, sodium, and refined sugars increases the risk of CHD. Conversely, a heart-healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats (such as omega-3 fatty acids) has been associated with a lower incidence of CHD. The Mediterranean diet, for example, has been shown to reduce the risk of CHD due to its emphasis on fresh produce, nuts, legumes, and fish [2].

Regular physical activity has a profound impact on cardiovascular health. Engaging in moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least 150 minutes per week, or vigorous-intensity exercise for 75 minutes per week reduces the risk of CHD. Exercise helps maintain a healthy weight, lowers blood pressure, improves lipid profile, enhances insulin sensitivity, and reduces inflammation, all of which contribute to a healthier heart. Simple lifestyle modifications like walking, cycling, or taking the stairs can have a significant impact on reducing CHD risk [3].

Smoking is a major risk factor for CHD. The chemicals in tobacco smoke damage blood vessels, increase blood pressure, decrease oxygen supply, and promote the formation of blood clots. Quitting smoking is one of the most critical steps individuals can take to reduce their risk of CHD. The benefits are significant and immediate, with a notable decrease in the risk of CHD within the first year of quitting.

While moderate alcohol consumption may have some cardiovascular benefits, excessive alcohol intake can have detrimental effects on heart health. Heavy drinking is associated with high blood pressure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy, all of which increase the risk of CHD. It is crucial to strike a balance and limit alcohol intake to moderate levels (up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men) to avoid potential harm [4].

Metabolomics involves the systematic analysis of small molecules involved in cellular metabolism. It provides a holistic view of metabolic alterations associated with disease states. Metabolomic profiling of blood samples has identified metabolites related to lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation, offering insights into atherosclerosis pathogenesis and potential diagnostic markers.

Chronic stress and its associated psychological factors contribute to the development and progression of CHD. Prolonged stress triggers an array of physiological responses, including elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate, and inflammation, which can damage the arteries and promote plaque formation. Engaging in stress-reducing activities such as meditation, yoga, deep breathing exercises, and hobbies can have a positive impact on cardiovascular health [5].


The development and progression of coronary heart disease are influenced by various lifestyle factors. A healthy diet, regular physical activity, avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and effective stress management are crucial in reducing the risk of CHD and promoting cardiovascular health. It is imperative for individuals to adopt and maintain these lifestyle modifications throughout their lives to prevent the onset of CHD or slow its progression. By empowering individuals with the knowledge and tools to make positive lifestyle choices, we can collectively reduce the burden of CHD and improve the overall well-being of populations worldwide.




  1. Becker RC. The role of blood viscosity in the development and progression of coronary artery disease. Cleve Clin J Med. 1993;60(5):353-8.

    Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  2. Sayols-Baixeras S, Lluis-Ganella C, Lucas G, et al. Pathogenesis of coronary artery disease: focus on genetic risk factors and identification of genetic variants. Appl Clin Genet. 2014:15-32.

    Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Kivimäki M, Steptoe A. Effects of stress on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018;15(4):215-29.

    Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  4. McGiffin DC, Savunen T, Kirklin JK, et al. Cardiac transplant coronary artery disease: a multivariable analysis of pretransplantation risk factors for disease development and morbid events. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995;109(6):1081-9.

    Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Ades PA, Savage PD. Obesity in coronary heart disease: An unaddressed behavioral risk factor. Prev Med. 2017;104:117-9.

    Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App