Journal of Cancer Immunology & Therapy

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Short Communication - Journal of Cancer Immunology & Therapy (2024) Volume 7, Issue 1

Leveraging the Immune System for Metastasis Suppression: A Promising Frontier in Cancer Therapy.

Keon Jeong *

College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Republic of Korea

*Corresponding Author:
Keon Jeong
College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Republic of Korea

Received: 02-Feb -2024, Manuscript No. AAJCIT-24-129890; Editor assigned: 03-Feb-2024, PreQC No. AAJCIT-24-129890 (PQ); Reviewed:17-Feb-2024, QC No. AAJCIT-24-129890; Revised:22-Feb-2024, Manuscript No. AAJCIT-24-129890 (R); Published:29-Feb-2024, DOI:10.35841/aara-7.1.195

Citation: Jeong K., Leveraging the immune system for metastasis suppression: a promising frontier in cancer therapy. J Cancer Immunol Ther. 2024;7(1):195

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Metastasis, the spread of cancer cells from the primary tumor to distant organs, remains a major challenge in cancer treatment and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Traditional cancer therapies often target the primary tumor but may be less effective against metastatic disease. In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent or inhibit metastasis. This article explores the potential of immune-based approaches for metastasis suppression and their implications for cancer therapy [1].

However, cancer cells can evade immune detection and suppression by various mechanisms, including downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, secretion of immunosuppressive cytokines, and expression of immune checkpoint molecules [2].

Metastatic cancer cells exploit immune evasion mechanisms to evade immune surveillance and establish secondary tumors in distant organs. The metastatic cascade involves multiple steps, including intravasation into blood or lymphatic vessels, survival in circulation, extravasation into distant tissues, and colonization of secondary sites. At each step, cancer cells interact with the immune system and may evade immune detection or suppression, allowing them to metastasize and proliferate unchecked [3].

Immunotherapy, which aims to enhance or reprogram the immune response against cancer, has emerged as a promising strategy for metastasis suppression. Immune-based approaches for metastasis suppression include: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies, block inhibitory signals that suppress T cell activity, thereby enhancing antitumor immune responses. These agents have shown efficacy in various cancers, including melanoma, lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma, and are being investigated for their potential to prevent or inhibit metastasis [4].

Adoptive cell therapy involves the infusion of ex vivo expanded or genetically engineered immune cells, such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, to target and destroy cancer cells. Adoptive cell therapy has shown promising results in hematological malignancies and solid tumors and holds potential for preventing or treating metastatic disease [5].

Cancer vaccines stimulate the immune system to recognize and target tumor-specific antigens, leading to the activation of antitumor immune responses. Peptide-based vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, and whole-cell vaccines are being investigated for their ability to induce immune responses against metastatic cancer cells and prevent tumor recurrence [6].

Bispecific antibodies are engineered antibodies that can simultaneously target two different antigens, such as a tumor antigen and an immune cell receptor. Bispecific antibodies redirect immune cells to recognize and eliminate cancer cells, including metastatic cells, while minimizing off-target effects. Bispecific antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens and immune checkpoints are under development for metastasis suppression [7].

Oncolytic viruses are engineered viruses that selectively infect and replicate within cancer cells, leading to cell lysis and release of tumor-associated antigens. Oncolytic viruses can induce antitumor immune responses and promote tumor regression, including metastatic lesions. Clinical trials are evaluating oncolytic viruses as monotherapy or in combination with other immune-based therapies for metastatic cancer treatment [8].

The immune system plays a critical role in recognizing and eliminating cancer cells through a process known as immunosurveillance. Immune cells, including T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages, work together to detect and destroy abnormal or transformed cells [9].

While immune-based approaches hold promise for metastasis suppression, several challenges must be addressed to maximize their efficacy and clinical utility. These include: Identifying biomarkers predictive of response to immunotherapy, Overcoming immune evasion mechanisms and resistance to treatment, Optimizing treatment combinations and sequencing strategies, Managing immune-related adverse events and toxicities, Improving access to immunotherapy and reducing treatment costs [10].


Harnessing the immune system for metastasis suppression represents a promising frontier in cancer therapy, offering new opportunities to prevent or inhibit the spread of cancer cells and improve patient outcomes. Immune-based approaches, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cell therapy, cancer vaccines, bispecific antibodies, and oncolytic viruses, hold potential for disrupting the metastatic cascade and controlling metastatic disease. Continued research efforts, clinical trials, and interdisciplinary collaborations are essential for advancing immune-based therapies and realizing their full potential in the fight against metastatic cancer.


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