Perspective - Journal of Dermatology Research and Skin Care (2023) Volume 7, Issue 3
Immunodermatology investigating the immune system in skin health and disease.
Department of Dermatology and Laboratory of Histology and Cell Biology, University of Amsterdam, Academisch Medisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
- *Corresponding Author:
- Netea Foster
Department of Dermatology and Laboratory of Histology and Cell Biology,
University of Amsterdam, Academisch Medisch Centrum,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Received:23-May-2023,Manuscript No. AADRSC-23-102555; Editor assigned:26-May-2023, PreQC No. AADRSC-23-102555(PQ); Reviewed:09-Jun-2023, QC No. AADRSC-23-102555; Revised:13-Jun-2023, Manuscript No.AADRSC-23-102555(R); Published:21-Jun-2023, DOI:10.35841/aadrsc- 7.3.153
Citation: Foster N. Immunodermatology investigating the immune system in skin health and disease.Dermatol Res Skin Care. 2023; 7(3):153
The field of immunodermatology focuses on understanding the intricate relationship between the immune system and skin health. The skin serves as a physical barrier, protecting the body from external threats. However, it is also an active immunological organ that orchestrates complex immune responses to pathogens, allergens, and autoantigens. This article explores the fascinating realm of immunodermatology, delving into the immune system's role in maintaining skin homeostasis and its contribution to various skin diseases. By elucidating the immunological mechanisms involved, we can develop targeted therapies and interventions to promote skin health and effectively manage skin disorders.
Skin immunology and immune cells
The skin harbors a robust immune system that comprises a diverse array of immune cells. Key players include keratinocytes, dendritic cells, mast cells, T cells, B cells, and macrophages. Keratinocytes, the predominant cell type in the epidermis, not only act as physical barriers but also produce antimicrobial peptides and cytokines that contribute to immune surveillance. Dendritic cells are responsible for capturing antigens and presenting them to T cells to initiate immune responses. Mast cells play a vital role in allergic reactions and inflammatory responses. T cells and B cells are crucial for adaptive immune responses, while macrophages phagocytose pathogens and debris. These cells work in coordination to maintain skin homeostasis and protect against external insults.
Immune-mediated skin diseases
Psoriasis:Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disease characterized by red, scaly plaques. It involves dysregulated immune responses, specifically the activation of T cells, which release inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukins. The interaction between T cells, dendritic cells, and keratinocytes drives excessive proliferation of keratinocytes, leading to plaque formation.
Atopic dermatitis:Atopic dermatitis, or eczema, is a common inflammatory skin condition associated with a defective skin barrier and immune dysregulation. Disruptions in the skin barrier allow allergens to penetrate, triggering an exaggerated immune response. T-helper 2 (Th2) cells and elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) contribute to the inflammation and intense itching experienced by patients.
Autoimmune bullous diseases:Autoimmune bullous diseases, such as pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, result from an autoimmune attack on components of the skin. In pemphigus vulgaris, autoantibodies target desmoglein proteins, leading to the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion between keratinocytes. Bullous pemphigoid involves autoantibodies against proteins in the dermal-epidermal junction, triggering an immune response that leads to blister formation.
Immunodeficiencies and skin infections
Primary immunodeficiencies:Certain primary immunodeficiency disorders can manifest with skin abnormalities and recurrent infections. Examples include severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), ataxia-telangiectasia, and chronic granulomatous disease. Defects in immune cell development or function compromise the skin's ability to mount an effective immune response, leaving individuals susceptible to infections.
Cutaneous viral infections: Viruses can cause a range of skin infections, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The immune response against viral infections involves both innate and adaptive immunity. Failure of the immune system to control viral replication can result in persistent or recurrent infections, leading to skin manifestations such as cold sores, warts, and shingles.
Therapeutic advances and future directions
Understanding the immunological mechanisms underlying skin diseases has paved the way for targeted therapeutic interventions. Biologic agents that specifically target inflammatory cytokines or immune cells have revolutionized the treatment of immune-mediated skin conditions. Monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α, interleukins, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising results in clinical practice. Future directions in immunodermatology involve exploring the potential of immunomodulatory agents, such as Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, in the management of skin diseases. Additionally, advances in our understanding of the skin microbiome and its interaction with the immune system hold great potential for developing innovative therapies that promote skin health.
Immunodermatology unravels the intricate interplay between the immune system and skin health and disease. The immune cells and molecules involved in maintaining skin homeostasis also contribute to the pathogenesis of various skin disorders. Investigating the immunological mechanisms underlying these diseases has led to significant advancements in targeted therapies and interventions. By continuing to explore the complex immunological interactions within the skin, we can pave the way for further breakthroughs in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of immune-mediated skin diseases, ultimately improving the quality of life for individuals affected by these conditions.
- Lupu MA, Gradisteanu Pircalabioru G, Chifiriuc MC, et al.Beneficial effects of food supplements based on hydrolyzed collagen for skin care. Exp Therap Med. 2020;20(1):12-7.
- Boda D.Tackling key immunological and immuno-dermatological pathways and their link to treatment options.Exp Therap Med. 2020;20(1):9-11.
- Grechin C, Solov?stru LG, Vata D, et al.Inflammatory marker alteration in response to systemic therapies in psoriasis.ExpTherap Med. 2020;20(1):42-6.
- Sandru F, Draghici CC, Predescu T, et al.Regressive melanoma in a female patient: A case report.ExpTherap Med. 2020 ;20(1):87-90. strong>
- Timofte D, Dragos D, Balcangiu?Stroescu AE, et al.Characteristics of patients at initiation of renal replacement therapy?experience of a hemodialysiscenter.ExpTherap Med. 2020;20(1):103-8.