Perspective - Journal of Cancer Immunology & Therapy (2023) Volume 6, Issue 4
Identification of truly immunogenic neoantigens for cancer microenvironment
Lathia Rehemtulla *
Department of Radiation Oncology
- *Corresponding Author:
- Lathia Rehemtulla
Department of Radiation Oncology
University of Michigan
Received:31-Jul-2023,Manuscript No. AAJCIT-23-109858; Editor assigned: 04-Aug-2023, PreQC No. AAJCIT-23-109858 (PQ); Reviewed:18-Aug -2023, QC No. AAJCIT-23-109858; Revised:24-Aug -2023, Manuscript No. AAJCIT-23-109858 (R); Published:31-Aug -2023, DOI: 10.35841/aajcit- 6.4.160
Cancer remains one of the most formidable challenges in modern medicine, affecting millions of lives globally. Traditional therapeutic approaches, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation, have made significant strides in treating cancer; however, they often come with severe side effects and limitations. In recent years, a groundbreaking field of research has emerged, revolutionizing cancer treatment - Cancer Immunology & Therapy. By leveraging the body's immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells, this novel approach has opened new horizons in the quest for more effective and targeted cancer treatments. Central to the success of cancer immunology and therapy is the discovery and exploitation of neoantigens. Neoantigens are mutated peptides present on the surface of cancer cells but absent in normal healthy cells. As a result, they represent ideal targets for immunotherapy as they can be selectively recognized by the immune system as foreign invaders, unleashing a potent and highly specific anti-cancer response .
The immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body from foreign invaders, including viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells. Under normal circumstances, the immune system can detect and eliminate cancer cells through a process known as cancer immune surveillance. However, cancer cells can evade this surveillance by employing various mechanisms to hide from the immune system, allowing tumors to grow and spread undetected .
Immunotherapy aims to boost the body's natural defenses against cancer by enhancing the immune system's ability to recognize and destroy malignant cells. Over the years, researchers have developed several immunotherapeutic strategies, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cell therapies, and cancer vaccines, to combat cancer effectively. Neoantigens represent a compelling avenue for personalized cancer therapy. As each patient's cancer is unique, so are the neoantigens presented by their tumors. By identifying and targeting patient-specific neoantigens, researchers can create highly personalized cancer vaccines or adoptive cell therapies tailored to each individual's tumor profile. This approach holds great promise, as it minimizes the risk of immune-related adverse effects commonly associated with traditional chemotherapy [3,4].
The emergence of high-throughput genomic sequencing and computational biology has revolutionized the identification and characterization of neoantigens. Researchers can now analyze the genetic makeup of tumors more comprehensively, enabling the prediction of neoantigens and their subsequent validation in the laboratory. These advancements have opened up exciting possibilities for neoantigen-based cancer vaccines and cellular therapies that can significantly improve treatment outcomes.Despite the tremendous progress in cancer immunology and therapy, challenges remain. The identification of truly immunogenic neoantigens that elicit robust immune responses remains a complex task. Moreover, the dynamic nature of tumors and their ability to evade immune recognition necessitate continuous research efforts to stay one step ahead .
Cancer Immunology & Therapy, with a focus on Neoantigens, represents a groundbreaking frontier in the battle against cancer. Harnessing the power of the immune system to target and eliminate cancer cells has shown remarkable potential in revolutionizing cancer treatment. Neoantigens, which are unique antigens derived from tumor-specific mutations, play a crucial role in activating a personalized and potent immune response against cancer. One of the key advantages of neoantigens lies in their tumor-specific nature, offering a means to distinguish cancer cells from normal healthy cells. This specificity minimizes off-target effects, reducing collateral damage to healthy tissues commonly observed in conventional cancer therapies like chemotherapy and radiation. Consequently, neoantigen-based therapies have the potential to significantly enhance patient outcomes while minimizing adverse side effects, vastly improving the quality of life for those afflicted by cancer.
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