Short Communication - Journal of Biotechnology and Phytochemistry (2023) Volume 7, Issue 3
Heterologous expression of artificial miRNAs from rice dwarf virus in transgenic rice
Department of Biotechnology
- *Corresponding Author:
- Paul Brook
Department of Biotechnology
Received:18-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAJBP-23-101739; Editor assigned:22-May-2023, PreQC No. AAJBP-23-101739(PQ); Reviewed:05-Jun-2023, QC No. AAJBP-23-101739; Revised:09-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AAJBP-23-101739(R); Published:16-Jun-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aajbp-7.3.149
In recent years, genetic engineering has revolutionized the field of agriculture by enabling the development of transgenic crops with enhanced traits, such as disease resistance and increased yield. One promising approach involves the introduction of artificial microRNAs (miRNAs) into plants to regulate gene expression. Rice, being a staple food for billions of people worldwide, has been a major focus of research in this area. In this article, we explore the fascinating technique of heterologous expression of artificial miRNAs derived from rice dwarf virus (RDV) in transgenic rice and its potential applications in crop improvement. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that play crucial roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants and animals. These tiny molecules are approximately 21-24 nucleotides long and are capable of silencing gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), resulting in their degradation or translational repression .
Heterologous Expression of Artificial miRNAs
Heterologous expression involves introducing genetic material from one species into another. In the case of rice dwarf virus miRNAs, researchers have developed artificial versions of these miRNAs and inserted them into the genome of rice plants using genetic engineering techniques. This approach allows the artificial miRNAs to be produced in the plant cells and exert their regulatory effects on target genes, mimicking the natural viral infection. Heterologous expression of artificial microRNAs (miRNAs) is a powerful technique in the field of genetic engineering that allows the manipulation of gene expression in diverse organisms, including plants. This approach involves introducing synthetic miRNA sequences into the genome of the target organism, enabling the production of artificial miRNAs and subsequent regulation of gene expression. Synthetic miRNA sequences are designed to target specific genes of interest. These artificial miRNAs are typically constructed based on the structure and characteristics of endogenous miRNAs. Computational tools and algorithms are used to predict and optimize the miRNA sequences to ensure efficient and specific targeting of the desired genes .
The designed artificial miRNA sequences are then inserted into expression vectors, which are DNA molecules capable of delivering the miRNA sequences into the target organism. These vectors often include regulatory elements, such as promoters and terminators, to ensure appropriate expression of the artificial miRNAs. The expression vectors carrying the artificial miRNA sequences are introduced into the target organism through various methods, such as Agrobacterium-mediated transformation or biolistic (gene gun) bombardment. Once inside the cells of the target organism, the vectors integrate into the genome, and the artificial miRNA sequences become part of the host organism's genetic material .
Expression and Processing of Artificial miRNAs: Once integrated into the genome, the artificial miRNA sequences are transcribed into primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). These pri-miRNAs are further processed by cellular machinery, including enzymes such as Dicer, to generate mature miRNA molecules. The mature artificial miRNAs then associate with protein complexes, forming the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The RISC complex containing the artificial miRNA recognizes and binds to the target mRNA molecules through sequence complementarity. This interaction leads to the degradation of the target mRNA or inhibition of its translation, effectively silencing the expression of the targeted gene .
One of the primary objectives of introducing artificial miRNAs derived from RDV into transgenic rice is to confer resistance against rice dwarf virus itself. By mimicking the viral miRNAs, these artificial molecules can effectively silence the expression of viral target genes, hampering the replication and spread of the virus within the plant. This strategy provides a potential long-term solution for managing RDV infections and minimizing crop losses. Apart from combating RDV, heterologous expression of artificial miRNAs in transgenic rice holds promise for improving the crop's tolerance to various environmental stresses .
The heterologous expression of artificial miRNAs derived from rice dwarf virus in transgenic rice represents a powerful tool for crop improvement and plant protection. By leveraging the natural regulatory mechanisms of viral miRNAs, researchers are unlocking the potential to enhance disease resistance, stress tolerance, and yield in rice crops. Continued advancements in this field will undoubtedly contribute to sustainable agriculture and ensure global food security in the face of evolving challenges.
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