Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy

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Commentary - Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy (2021) Volume 6, Issue 4

Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE): A severe disease.

Shawn Kruger*

Editorial Office, Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy, London, united Kingdom

Corresponding Author:
Shawn Kruger
Editorial Office
Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy
London, United Kingdom
E-mail: [email protected]

Accepted date: July 21, 2021

Citation: Kruger S.Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis (GAE): A severe disease.J Parasit Dis Diagn Ther 2021;6(4):5

Abstract

GAE caused by Acanthamoeba spp. is more common in chronically sick, debilitated people, immunocompromised people, such as those with HIV/AIDS, and people who have taken broad-spectrum antibiotics or chemotherapy drugs. Personality changes, headaches, low-grade fevers, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, diplopia, hemiparesis, seizures, decreased levels of awareness, and coma are some of the clinical symptoms. Some individuals may have palsies of the third and sixth cranial nerves. GAE might be mistaken for bacterial, tuberculous, or viral meningitis. GAE is more common in chronically sick, debilitated people, whether caused by Acanthamoeba spp. or B. mandrillaris. Many have had immunosuppressive therapy, have AIDS, or have been prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics or chemotherapy drugs. The incubation time is unclear, and the sickness may take many weeks or months to manifest. Hematogenous invasion and penetration into the brain occurs as a result of dissemination from the original target, which is most likely the lower respiratory tract or the skin.

Editorial

GAE caused by Acanthamoeba spp. is more common in chronically sick, debilitated people, immunocompromised people, such as those with HIV/AIDS, and people who have taken broad-spectrum antibiotics or chemotherapy drugs. Personality changes, headaches, low-grade fevers, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, diplopia, hemiparesis, seizures, decreased levels of awareness, and coma are some of the clinical symptoms. Some individuals may have palsies of the third and sixth cranial nerves. GAE might be mistaken for bacterial, tuberculous, or viral meningitis. GAE is more common in chronically sick, debilitated people, whether caused by Acanthamoeba spp. or B. mandrillaris. Many have had immunosuppressive therapy, have AIDS, or have been prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics or chemotherapy drugs. The incubation time is unclear, and the sickness may take many weeks or months to manifest. Hematogenous invasion and penetration into the brain occurs as a result of dissemination from the original target, which is most likely the lower respiratory tract or the skin.

Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK) is a persistent corneal infection linked to contact lens use, corneal abrasion or hypoxic damage, and contaminated water exposure. GAE caused by Acanthamoeba was previously only diagnosed after autopsy. Because Acanthamoeba spp. have very rarely been isolated from the CSF or detected on wet mount, brain biopsy is the most accurate diagnosis method; both an immunohistochemical stain and PCR testing are available to help in the examination of brain tissue. Acanthamoeba exposure causes measurable serum antibodies, although it's unclear if this leads to protective immunity. Although high titers to Acanthamoeba were recently utilised as evidence of Acanthamoeba GAE in an immunocompetent patient, serologic tests are typically not helpful for diagnosis. Antibodies to Acanthamoeba have been found in the sera of people who haven't had any signs of the disease, as well as in individuals who have had GAE, skin infections, or both.

With or without contrast enhancement, neuroimaging often reveals single or many space-occupying lesions in the brain. Toxoplasmosis, primary CNS lymphoma, TB, neurocysticercosis, nocardiosis, aspergillosis, bacterial brain abscess, and GAE related to Balamuthia are among the differential diagnoses in these individuals. These organisms can't be distinguished reliably on radiography, thus tissue staining with Acanthamoeba-specific antibodies is necessary for a definite diagnosis. Acanthamoeba skin infections are common among GAE patients. In individuals suspected of having GAE, skin nodules or ulcers should be biopsied and tested for Acanthamoeba. Brain and skin biopsy tissues have been successfully cultivated with Acanthamoeba. Acanthamoeba spp. have been found in brain tissue by PCR, including formaldehydefixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Early diagnosis and therapy are critical for effective AK treatment. Although in vivo confocal microscopy for cyst visualisation is becoming more commonly used for the diagnosis of AK, it still relies on a high clinical suspicion and the demonstration of Acanthamoeba in corneal scrapings or biopsy specimens by histopathologic examination, culture, or molecular mechanisms such as PCR or DNA probes. Even with therapy, Acanthamoeba infection of the CNS is typically deadly, with only a few documented survivors, all of whom experienced lasting neurological impairments. The time of diagnosis, the virulence and sensitivity of the Acanthamoeba strain, and most importantly the immunological state of the afflicted person all have a role in the prognosis.

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