Opinion Article - Journal of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (2022) Volume 7, Issue 4
Finding new methods for measurement of gastric motility.
Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Craiova 200349, Romania
- *Corresponding Author:
- Mungan Dunn
Department of Gastroenterology
Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova
Craiova 200349, Romania
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 14-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JGDD-22-116; Editor assigned: 16-Mar-2022, PreQC No. JGDD-22-116(PQ); Reviewed: 30-Mar-2022, QC No. JGDD-22-116; Revised: 06-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. JGDD-22-116(R); Published: 14-Apr-2022, DOI:10.35841/jgdd-7.4.116
Citation: Dunn M. Finding new methods for measurement of gastric motility. J Gastroenterology Dig Dis. 2022;7(4):116
The disorder that affects the stomach muscles and prevents the stomach from emptying properly. Gastroparesis can cause digestive problems. Damage to a nerve that regulates stomach muscles could be the culprit. Nausea and a full feeling after a small meal are common symptoms. Changes in diet and medicine may improve. Ghrelin (GHRL) and Motilin (MLN) are hormones that regulate energy homeostasis by stimulating hunger and GI motility. The mucosal layer of the stomach and the upper small intestine, respectively, create GHRL and MLN.
The mouth, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine are the five components of the gastrointestinal tract (colon). These portions are separated by sphincters, which are unique muscles that generally stay closed and regulate the movement of food and food remnants from one part to another.
Each section of the gastrointestinal tract serves a specific purpose in digesting, and as a result, each part has its own sort of motility. When the motility is not appropriate for its function in digestion, it can induce symptoms like bloating, vomiting, constipation, or diarrhoea, which are accompanied by sensations like pain, bloating, fullness, and the need to go to the bathroom.
GI motitility in the mouth and esophagus
The cervical inlet patch is formed by heterotopic gastric mucosa, which appears as a flat island of red mucosa in the proximal part of the oesophagus. The goal of this study was to look into the esophageal motility pattern and 24-hour pH profiles of cervical inlet patch patients. Esophageal motility testing and 24-hour pH monitoring with a double-channel pH probe were performed on heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical oesophagus with upper gastrointestinal symptoms.
In this case, manometric examination was abnormal. During pH monitoring from the distal probe, pathological acid reflux was discovered in 30 heterotopic gastric mucosa patients (30%). Four of the nine individuals had pathological acid reflux in the proximal oesophagus .
There are 3 phases in GI Motitility:
1. Voluntary Phase
2. Pharyngeal Phase
3. Esophageal Phase
GI motitility in the stomach
The stomach has long been thought to be a hollow muscular sac that kicks off the second phase of digestion. Despite its simplicity, it is the most complex endocrine organ, with its own physiology, biochemistry, immunology, and microbiology. All ingested things, including our food, must first pass through this organ, making the stomach perhaps the most important portion of the GI system. Gastric acid secretion has a unique biological purpose in that it not only starts the digestion process but also works as a first line of defence against food-borne microorganisms. Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and stomach cancer, can disturb normal gastric physiology and morphology .
GI motitility in the small intestine and large intestine
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) causes a variety of Gastrointestinal (GI) issues and consequences, including malabsorption. The use of probiotics in the treatment of SIBO syndrome has not been well investigated. The goal of this pilot trial was to see how effective a lactobacilli-based probiotic was at treating SIBO. Patients with chronic stomach pain or diarrhoea and a positive hydrogen breath test were randomly assigned to one of two groups: probiotic medication users or the control group. After vigorous antibiotic therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, the study group received a 15-day maintenance antibiotic therapy with lactol, while the control group received the same regimen without lactol. The HBT results and GI symptoms were studied and compared between the two groups. According to early findings, adding lactol probiotic to the maintenance medication of small intestine bacterial overgrowth patients on normal antibiotic therapy may help to reduce the syndrome's consequences .
Regulation of GI Motility
The difference in energy input and energy expenditure regulates the energy balance of vertebrates. Most vertebrates get their energy from food nutrients, which they get through the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Food intake and digestion, including GI tract motility, secretion, and absorption, are hence critical physiological activities for energy balance. Fasting (interdigestive) and postprandial (digestive) contraction patterns are two types of GI motility that change with meal. Contractility of the GI tract's smooth muscles, extrinsic and intrinsic neurons (motor and sensory), and certain hormones all influence GI motility. Ghrelin (GHRL) and motilin (MLN) promote hunger and GI motility in mammals and help to maintain energy homeostasis. Ghrelin (GHRL) and motilin (MLN) promote hunger and GI motility in mammals and help to maintain energy homeostasis. The mucosal layer of the stomach and the upper small intestine, respectively, create GHRL and MLN. In mammals, GHRL is involved in glucose metabolism, endocrine/exocrine processes, cardiovascular and reproductive functions, as well as eating and gastrointestinal motility. The activity of MLN, on the other hand, is restricted, and rodentia, such as mice and rats, lack the peptide and receptor. From a phylogenetic standpoint, GHRL and its receptor GHS-R1a have been found in a variety of vertebrates, with structural characteristics and physiological functions disclosed .
The control of GI motility by MLN and GHRL in vertebrates was the subject of this opinion piece. Both peptides are assumed to come from the same ancestral gene, and they operate on MLN-R and GHS-R1a. They are mostly synthesised in and released from the mucosa of the GI tract. The two peptides have different activities, and they don't just target the GI tract. Various animal species have different GI motility-stimulating activities, which appear to have been mirrored during vertebrate evolution.
- Korkut E, Bekta? M, Alkan M, et al. Esophageal motility and 24-h pH profiles of patients with heterotopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus. Eur J Intern Med. 2010;21(1):21-4.
- Hunt RH, Camilleri M, Crowe SE, et al. The stomach in health and disease. Gut. 2015;64(10):1650-68.
- Khalighi AR, Khalighi MR, Behdani R, et al. Evaluating the efficacy of probiotic on treatment in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)--a pilot study. Indian J Med Res. 2014;140(5):604-8.
- Kitazawa T, Kaiya H. Regulation of gastrointestinal motility by motilin and ghrelin in vertebrates. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019;10:278.