Rapid Communication - Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2023) Volume 6, Issue 3
Fibroblast Activation Protein: Unveiling the Enigmatic Regulator of Tissue Remodelling
Department of Immunology Inhibitors
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sengoku Shintaro
Department of Immunology Inhibitors
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
Received:29-May-2023, Manuscript No. AABB-23-104228; Editor assigned:01-Jun-2023, PreQC No. AABB-23-104228(PQ); Reviewed:16-Jun-2023, QC No. AABB-23-104228; Revised:22-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AABB-23-104228(R); Published:27-Jun-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aabb-6.3.144
Citation: Shintaro S. Fibroblast activation protein: Unveiling the enigmatic regulator of tissue remodelling. J Biochem Biotech 2023;6(3):144
In the intricate realm of tissue remodeling and repair, a multifunctional enzyme called Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) has emerged as a fascinating player. FAP, a cell surface-bound serine protease, has garnered significant attention in recent years due to its involvement in various physiological and pathological processes. This article aims to delve into the world of Fibroblast Activation Protein, exploring its structure, functions, and potential therapeutic implications .
Fibroblast Activation Protein, encoded by the FAP gene, belongs to the prolyl oligopeptidase family. It is predominantly expressed on the surface of activated fibroblasts, Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs), and some tumor cells. While it is most commonly associated with the tumor microenvironment, FAP expression has also been observed in certain non-neoplastic conditions .
Function and role
Extracellular Matrix Remodeling: FAP plays a crucial role in the remodeling of the Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM). Through its proteolytic activity, FAP cleaves collagen, fibronectin, and other ECM components, promoting tissue remodeling and facilitating cell migration. This activity is particularly relevant during wound healing and tissue repair processes. Regulation of Immune Responses: FAP's involvement in immune regulation is a subject of ongoing research. Studies have suggested that FAP contributes to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment by modulating the activity of immune cells such as T cells and dendritic cells. By influencing the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals, FAP may impact immune surveillance and responses in the context of cancer and autoimmune diseases .
Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth (ATG) FAP has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels develop to support tumor growth. It promotes angiogenesis by enhancing the bioavailability of growth factors like Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β). In preclinical models, inhibiting FAP has shown promise in suppressing tumor growth and metastasis .
Therapeutic Target: Given its association with various pathological conditions, FAP has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. Several FAP-targeting strategies are being explored, including monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, and small molecule inhibitors. Clinical trials investigating the efficacy of FAP-targeted therapies in cancer treatment are underway, offering hope for improved therapeutic options in the future .
Fibroblast Activation Protein, with its complex role in tissue remodeling, immunoregulation, and tumor biology, presents a compelling avenue for scientific exploration. Unraveling the intricacies of FAP's functions could offer valuable insights into the development of novel therapeutic strategies, not only for cancer but also for other diseases involving tissue remodeling and immune dysregulation. As research progresses, a deeper understanding of FAP's biology may pave the way for targeted interventions that could revolutionize the management of various conditions in the years to come.
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