Research and Reports on Genetics

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Short Communication - Research and Reports on Genetics (2022) Volume 4, Issue 4

Evolution and gene regulation in human erythropoiesis.

Scotto Pal*


Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, University of Milan, Italy

Corresponding Author:
Scotto Pal
Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health
University of Milan

Received: 06-Jul-2022, Manuscript No.AARGS-22-68617; Editor assigned: 09- Jul -2022, PreQC No. AARGS-22-68617 (PQ); Reviewed: 22-Jul-2022, QC No. 68617-22-63034; Revised: 25-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. AARGS-22-68617(R); Published: 29-Jul-2022, DOI:10.35841/aargs-4.4.120

Citation: Pal S. Evolution and gene regulation in human erythropoiesis. J Res Rep Genet.2022;4(4):120

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Gene interaction, Hereditary diseases, Gene regulation.


The acquisition of cell identity during stem cell attachment and differentiation depends on a combination of genetic and epigenetic information that ultimately determines the transcriptional outcome of the cell. Master transcription factors are involved in the selection of unique enhancer repertoires and activate a cascade of epigenetic events that may lead to cell-specific regulation of genes Recent advances in genomewide technology and bioinformatics data integration set a precedent for the molecular mechanisms underlying cell fate determination and phylogenetic development by analyzing transcriptional and epigenetic changes that occur at various stages of phylogenetic progression [1].

Human erythropoiesis studies mechanisms that regulate cell adhesion and fragmentation, as surface markers and master transcription factors that can isolate the developmental stages of individual cells and control this process are well known. Erythropoiesis is a multi-step process that involves early red blood cell hematopoietic stem cell attachment, final red blood cell differentiation, and reticulocyte maturation. During early erythrocyte attachment, proliferate to give rise to committed erythrocyte progenitor cells, erythrocyte burstforming units and erythrocyte colony-forming units The erythroid progenitor cells then undergo final differentiation to continuously produce separate populations of erythroblasts [2]. During this process, the cell size gradually decreases and the cell membrane is reorganized. The cytoplasm first becomes basophils as ribosomes accumulate, then eosinophils due to the mass production of hemoglobin, but the nucleus becomes smaller due to progressive chromatin condensation. Finally, orthochromatic erythroblasts extrude nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria to produce reticulocytes. During maturation, reticulocytes release ribosomes, rearranging the cytoskeleton and cell membrane to adopt the characteristic biconcave shape of erythrocytes [3].

The general fate of retrotransposon-derived genes is to accumulate mutations and pseudogene, but not which exhibit a high degree of functional conservation. three independent studies discovered that and are expressed in human and mouse cleavage embryos and are involved in the activation of the junctional genome They perform orthologous functions, but and are branched with DNA sequence motifs recognized by their The second homeodomain promotes binding to a set of highly conserved cleavage-state genes in both mice and humans, while the first homeodomain promotes repetitive expression and rapidly shows signs of co-evolution. It seems to regulate the set of evolving retroviral elements [4,5]. Interestingly subsequently won the intron in the untranslated region. This increase in the intron gives the transcript a unique level of regulation.


Many therapeutic approaches targeting expression and function, such as gene silencing and small molecule mediated inhibition, are currently being both significant barriers and unexplored opportunities are revealed by the complicated biology of gene regulation. For example, protein expression is highly sporadic and transient, with only a subset of nuclei containing protein at any given time in cultures and cells exposed to may succumb to toxicity even after expression ceases If we can better understand the many layers of regulation that ensure that is silenced in the somatic tissues of healthy individuals, we may uncover novel therapeutic avenues to silence in the muscle. Similarly, the mechanism by which is turned off in the early embryo could also offer clues for silencing in the muscle.


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