Perspective - Journal of Fisheries Research (2022) Volume 6, Issue 5
Evolution and functions of genomic distribution in fish geneticsDimitry Hellemans*
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dimitry Hellemans
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
University of Cincinnati Medical Center
231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 29-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. AAJFR-22-78344, Editor assigned: 02-Sep-2022, PreQC No.AAJFR-22-78344 (PQ); Reviewed: 16-Sep-2022, QC No. AAJFR-22-78344; Revised: 20-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AAJFR-22-78344 (R); Published: 27-Sep-2022, DOI:10.35841/aajfr-6.5.123
Citation: Hellemans D. Evolution and functions of genomic distribution in fish genetics. J Fish Res. 2022;6(5):123
Aquaculture is useful for characterization of genetic stocks, broodstock selection, dense linkage mapping, mapping economically important quantitative traits, identifying genes responsible for these traits, and application to marker-assisted breeding programmes. The genomic distribution, function, evolution, and practical applications of microsatellites are discussed in this review, with a focus on fish genetics and aquaculture .The last common ancestor of fish and mammals dates back to the beginning of the vertebrate lineage, and fish account for half of all modern vertebrates. It is not surprising, then, that several fish species have recently played critical roles in advancing our understanding of vertebrate genome evolution, informing us on the structure of human genes, and, somewhat unexpectedly, in providing leads to understanding the function of genes involved in human diseases . Because of the accumulation of neutral mutations in non-functional regions, genome sequence comparisons between such distantly related organisms are extremely informative.
However, because humans and fishes share many developmental pathways, organ systems, and physiological mechanisms, the findings are applicable to human biology. So far, bioinformatics and molecular biology techniques have effectively utilised the advantages of zebrafish, Medaka, Tetraodon, and Takifugu. However, the full potential of fish genomics is about to be realised through the integration of more traditional disciplines such as biochemistry and physiology, as well as the study of additional species such as carp, trout, or tilapia, as well as the expansion of its applications to environmental genomics or aquaculture . Atrophy or exaggeration of important anatomical or physiological functions occurs frequently enough to attract biologists to fish models. This includes molecular genetics and genome research, in which fish have interesting and exceptional features, if not all-time records, among vertebrates. Genome research When it came to DNA sequence acquisition and "mining," fishes really stepped up in 1993, when Sydney Brenner proposed a new species as a genome model, the marine Pufferfish .
Aside from being a delicacy in Japan and China, fugu has one of the smallest vertebrate genomes. This feature, which has already been documented for its freshwater relative Tetraodon Nigroviridis, is a significant advantage for quickly gaining access to a large catalogue of genes in a vertebrate at a cost that is comparable to the much larger genome of a mammalian species. Fishes outnumber all other vertebrates in terms of both species numbers and morphological and phylogenetic diversity. They are an ecologically and economically significant group that serves an important role as a human resource. This makes fish genomic exploration an important area of research, both for applied and basic research purposes. Fish genomes can vary greatly in complexity, which is due in part to differences in the size and content of repetitive DNA, a history of genome duplication events, and the fact that fish may be polyploid, all of which complicate genome assembly and analysis .
Fish are the world's most diverse group of vertebrates. As of 2017, a total of 33,554 fish species had been described with many more yet to be discovered. They have colonised both marine and freshwater habitats and exhibit incredible anatomical and ecological diversity. The term fishes (Pisces) refers to both the most primitive jawless fishes (Lampreys and Hagfishes), which live as parasites or scavengers, and the lobe-finned fishes (Lungfish and Coelacanths), which gave rise to tetrapods. The absence of the latter results in fishes as a paraphyletic group. Clearly, the previous trend of sequencing genomes only for well-studied species with a wealth of information will not be the only path for future research. There are numerous genome sequencing projects that are not mentioned here, and their number is increasing at an exponential rate .
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