Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1-845-458-6882

Opinion Article - Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology (2021) Volume 5, Issue 5

Evidence of gene selection by ivermectin in the Onchocerca volvulus 2-tubulin gene polymorphism in the Mbonge sub-division of Cameroon.

Fleur Delacour*

Editorial Manager, Allied Academies, London, United Kingdom

Correspondence to:

Fleur Delacour

Editorial Manager,

Allied Academies

40 Bloomsbury Way

London, United Kingdom

WC1A 2SE

Tel: +(828) 214-3944

E-mail: [email protected]

Accepted on September 13, 2021

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology

Abstract

Ivermectin (IVM) is still the sole safe medicine for mass onchocerciasis control, and its efficacy is critical to the success of control programmes. However, relying on a single treatment for decades could be problematic due to the development of IVM resistance, as seen in cattle nematode infections and canine filarial heartworm. Drug resistance is a genetic phenomenon that results from changes in the parasite population's genetic profile, which can be interpreted as selection for specific gene variants.

Opinion

Ivermectin (IVM) is still the sole safe medicine for mass onchocerciasis control, and its efficacy is critical to the success of control programmes. However, relying on a single treatment for decades could be problematic due to the development of IVM resistance, as seen in cattle nematode infections and canine filarial heartworm. Drug resistance is a genetic phenomenon that results from changes in the parasite population's genetic profile, which can be interpreted as selection for specific gene variants. The beta tubulin gene has been connected to IVM selection in Onchocerca volvulus and is also known to be associated with IVM resistance in veterinary nematodes. The link between O. volvulus worm genotype and IVM selection might be discovered by analysing the parasitological response profile of O. volvulus to IVM and genetic investigation of the -tubulin gene. Onchocercal nodules were surgically removed from onchocerciasis patients in two groups with differing treatment histories: one that had received recurrent doses of IVM for at least the previous three years, and the other that had not. In both IVM exposed and naive worms, Reverse Transcription (RT) PCR of -tubulin transcripts indicated similar expression levels.

 

In Cameroon, 2.81 million people are affected with the disease, with another 5.2 million at risk of infection. The disease has a nodule prevalence of over 40%, with a skin microfilaria prevalence of around 60%. According to a study conducted in three drainage basins with diverse hydrologic profiles in rain forest areas co-endemic for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Cameroon's southern region, the Meme drainage basin showed the highest prevalence of nodule (39.1%) and microfilarial (mf) (52.7%). Various governments, policymakers, and decision-makers in the vanguard of the fight against onchocerciasis have made ongoing attempts to manage and eradicate the illness, relying primarily on Community-Directed Therapy with Ivermectin (CDTI) at the moment. Because Ivermectin (IVM) has a limited macrofilaricidal activity, it is necessary to treat onchocerciasis with IVM for roughly 15 years, which corresponds to the adult worm's life period.

However, relying on a single treatment for decades could be problematic due to the potential development of IVM resistance, as seen in livestock nematode infections and canine filarial heartworm. Drug resistance is a genetic phenomenon that results from changes in the parasite population's genetic profile, which can be interpreted as selection for specific gene variants. The genetic profile of the population has already been transformed once the resistance phenotype has been unequivocally detected in the population. This genetic change can be found not only in genes whose products are engaged in the resistance mechanism, but also in genes that are genetically connected to other genes implicated in the resistance process. There have been significant changes in the genetic polymorphism of the -tubulin gene between O. volvulus populations from IVM exposed and IVM naive people.

The complete -tubulin gene was searched for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), and a consistent link was discovered between four SNPs and the poor responsiveness of Ghanaian O. volvulus populations to IVM. Using O. volvulus from IVM exposed and IVM naive individuals in the Mbonge Sub-Division, South West Region of Cameroon, this study aims to analyse the -tubulin gene for polymorphism linked with IVM resistance. In endemic communities, this will aid in early detection and monitoring of IVM resistance. Evidence of gene selection by ivermectin in the Onchocerca volvulus 2-tubulin gene polymorphism in the Mbonge sub-division of Cameroon. Fleur Delacour* Editorial Manager, Allied Academies, London, United Kingdom *

Get the App