Journal of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases

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Opinion Article - Journal of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases (2023) Volume 8, Issue 1

Epigastria hiatus hernia and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Jhon Sophia*

Department of Surgery and Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing, University of North Carolina, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Jhon Sophia
Department of Surgery and Center for Esophageal Diseases and Swallowing
University of North Carolina, USA

Received: 01-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. JGDD-22-72930; Editor assigned: 05-Jul-2022, PreQC No. JGDD-22-72930(PQ); Reviewed: 19-Jul-2022, QC No. JGDD-22-72930; Revised: 21-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. JGDD-22-72930(R); Published: 29-Jul-2022, DOI:10.35841/jgdd-7.7.135

Citation: Sophia J. Epigastria hiatus hernia and gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Gastroenterology Dig Dis. 2022;7(7):135

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Among patients without warning symptoms, the treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) frequently begins with an empiric trial of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) therapy and additional lifestyle changes. Persistent symptoms can be reduced by optimising therapy (better compliance and timing of PPI doses), or in some cases, by increasing PPI dosage to twice daily. Endoscopy and esophageal physiology tests can be used to assess patients with persistent symptoms in order to better understand their disease profile and tailor their care. Patients with well-defined GERD may benefit from laparoscopic fundoplication, magnetic sphincter augmentation, and endoscopic treatments.


Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Sleep disturbances, Heartburn, Proton-pump inhibitor, Obstructive sleep apnea.


A hiatal hernia, also known as a hiatus hernia, is a form of hernia in which the stomach or other abdominal organs protrude through the diaphragm into the middle of the chest. This could lead to heartburn or GERD, also known as laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR), which manifests as a taste of acid in the back of the mouth. Chest discomfort and difficulty swallowing are possible additional symptoms. Volvulus, iron deficiency anaemia, and intestinal blockage are examples of complications.

Age and obesity are the two risk variables that are most prevalent. Major trauma, scoliosis, and specific types of surgery are additional risk factors. There are two basic types: paraesophageal hernia, in which an abdominal organ slides into the oesophagus, and sliding hernia, in which the stomach's body moves up.

Adjusting you’re eating habits, losing weight, and raising the head of your bed can all help with hiatal hernia symptoms. Proton pump inhibitors and H2 blockers are two examples of drugs that lessen stomach acid and may help with the symptoms. Laparoscopic fundoplication surgery may be an option if medicine is ineffective in treating the illness. The afflicted population in the United States ranges from 10% to 80% [1].

Signs and Symptoms

Adults: The most common symptoms of GERD in adults are an acidic taste in the mouth, regurgitation, and heartburn. Less common symptoms include pain with swallowing/ sore throat, increased salivation (also known as water brash), nausea,[chest pain, coughing, and globus sensation. The acid reflux can induce asthma attack symptoms like shortness of breath, cough, and wheezing in those with underlying asthma [2].

Children and babies: GERD may be difficult to detect in infants and children since they cannot describe what they are feeling and indicators must be observed. Symptoms may vary from typical adult symptoms. GERD in children may cause repeated vomiting, effortless spitting up, coughing, and other respiratory problems, such as wheezing. Inconsolable crying, refusing food, crying for food and then pulling off the bottle or breast only to cry for it again, failure to gain adequate weight, bad breath, and burping are also common. Children may have one symptom or many; no single symptom is universal in all children with GERD.

Of the estimated 4 million babies born in the US each year, up to 35% of them may have difficulties with reflux in the first few months of their lives, known as 'spitting up'. About 90% of infants will outgrow their reflux by their first birthday [3].

Acid reflux into the mouth can cause breakdown of the enamel, especially on the inside surface of the teeth. A dry mouth, acid or burning sensation in the mouth, bad breath and redness of the palate may occur. Other not so common symptoms of GERD include difficulty in swallowing, water brash which is flooding of the mouth with saliva, chronic cough, hoarse voice, nausea and vomiting [4].

Signs of enamel erosion are the appearance of a smooth, silkyglazed, sometimes dull, enamel surfaces with the absence of perikymata, together with intact enamel along the gum margin. It will be evident in people with restorations as tooth structure typically dissolves much faster than the restorative material, causing it to seem as if it “stands above” the surrounding tooth structure [5].


Consumption of non-vegetarian foods was an independent predictor of GERD. BMI was comparable among subjects with or without GERD.


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