International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology

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Research Article - International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology (2021) Volume 9, Issue 8

EFFECTS OF DIETARY INCLUSION OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale) AND GARLIC (Allium sativum) OIL (GGO) MIXTURES ON CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND SENSORY EVALAUTION OF BROILER CHICKENS

Alagbe JO1*, Oluwafemi RA2, Lawal Aisha Omolade2, Adelowo Samad Adetope2

1Department of Animal Nutrition and Biochemistry, Sumitra Research Institute, Gujarat, India

2Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

Corresponding Author:
Alagbe JO
Department of Animal Nutrition and Biochemistry,
Sumitra Research Institute,
Gujarat,
India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received 03th November, 2021; Accepted 17th November, 2021; Published 24th November, 2021

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Abstract

An experiment was carried out to examine the effect of dietary inclusion of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil (GGO) mixtures on the carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of broiler chickens. A total of 120 one-day- old (Arbo acre) were divided into five treatments with three replicates per treatment consisting of 8 birds each in a completely randomized design. Clean feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experiment which lasted for 8 weeks. Basal diet was formulated to meet the nutritional requirement of birds according to NRC (1994). Birds in treatment 1 (T1) were fed diet supplemented with 0% GGO while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were fed GGO at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% respectively. Results obtained were used to examine the phytochemical composition of (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) oil as well as carcass and organ characteristics of birds. Phytochemical composition of Zingiber officinale revealed the presence of phenols (8.21%), alkaloids (5.12%), flavonoids (7.49%), tannins (6.52%), saponins (3.18%), streiods (2.38%), glycosides (0.18%), oxalates (0.07%) and phytate (0.02%). Allium sativum contains flavonoids (10.67%), phenols (9.19%), alkaloids (7.02%), tannins (4.72%), steroids (3.65%), saponins (2.40%), glycosides (0.33%), oxalates (0.26%), phytate (0.05%). Dressing percentage, carcass and relative organ weights were significantly (P<0.05) among the treatments. There was no noticeable inflammation observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, liver and other internal organs. Sensory evaluation of the meat (tenderness, juiciness, flavor and aroma) were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by GGO except the meat colour which was not significantly (P˃0.05) different among the treatments. It was concluded that GGO can be included up to 0.4% in the diet of broilers without causing any deleterious effect on the health and performance of birds.

Keywords

Broilers, Ginger, Garlic, Sensory evaluation, Phytochemicals.

Introduction

Poultry has a short life cycle and is much more profile than larger livestock such as cattle. They are easily raised and adaptable to a wide range of climate condition (Erikssson, et al., 2008). The protein in poultry meat corresponds with those of turkeys, beef, and pork in amino acid required by man and is easily digestible. Poultry meat has a wide acceptance with little or no limitation in terms of traditional and religious taboos as compared to port which is rejected by Muslims (Dixon, et al., 2008). However, the industry in the developing countries is facing some challenges; these challenges include high feed to gain ratio and increase in the cost of feed because of high prices of feed ingredients and most recently multidrug resistance due to indiscriminate use of antibiotics (Abbas, et al., 2013; Alagbe and Betty, et al., 2019; Olafadehan, et al., 2019)[1,2,3].With increasing consumer pressure for producers to minimize drug use (antibiotics), more research is been conducted to find alternatives to antibiotics. Among the potential alternatives includes; probiotics, prebiotics, organic acid and plant extracts (essential oils) (Bento, et al., 2013; Zhang, et al., 2005). Essential oils are volatile, aromatic oily liquids distilled from plant parts and have a characteristic aroma and unique composition. They are complex mixtures of chemical compounds such as terpenes, terpenoids, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, methoxy-derivatives and a few others of which terpenes are the most common (Dorman and Deans, et al., 2000; Kalemba and Kunicka, et al., 2003; Alagbe, et al., 2019)[4,5]. According to Botslogou, et al., (2002); Alagbe, et al., (2018), [6,7] EO’s enhance the production of digestive secretions and nutrient absorption, improving gut health and enhancing meat quality due to the presence of phytochemicals in them. Major aromatic oils that may have potential in poultry production and processing include nutmeg, lime, mandarine, orange, rosewood, oregano, mountain savory, fennel, turmeric, rosemary, sage, neem, cinnamon, thyme, ginger, eucalyptus, garlic, pimenta, lemongrass, and clove. These essential oils can be used as additives in feed or drinking water or as anti- bacterial for the processing of poultry products (Yesilbag, et al., 2011; Li, et al., 2012)[8,9].

Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. Preliminary research indicates that nine compounds found in ginger may bind to serotonin receptors which may influence gastrointestinal function (Botsoglou, et al., 2002). Research conducted in-vitro tests show that ginger extract might control the quantity of free radicals and the peroxidation of lipids (Al-Amin, et al., 2006)[10]. The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shagaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. Rivlin (2001) reported that in laboratory animals, gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic, sedative, antipyretic and antibacterial properties.

Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a spice and a native medicine for many years. It has been indicated to possess antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cholesteremic, anticancerous and vasodilator characteristics (Khan, et al., 2007; Hanieh, et al., 2010)[11,12]. The key active ingredient in garlic is the plant chemical, allicin, which rapidly decompose to several volatile organosulphur compounds with bioactivities (Chang and Cheong, et al., 2008)[13]. Ginger and garlic supplements in broiler chicken diets have been recognized for their strong stimulating effect on the immune and digestive systems in birds (Gardzielewska, et al., 2003)[14].

This experiment was designed to examine the effects of dietary inclusions of garlic (Allium sativum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) oil mixture on the carcass characteristics, sensory evaluation of broiler chickens.

Materials and Methods

Site of the experiment

This study was carried out at the Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja Teaching and Research Farm, Main Campus, along airport Road, Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Gwagwalada is the headquarters of the Gwagwalada Area Council located between latitudes 8o571 and 8o551N and longitude 7o051 and 7o061E (Balogun, 2001)[15].

Sourcing, authentication and extraction of oil (GGO)

Fresh samples of ginger and garlic rhizomes were purchased from a local market in Gwagwalada Abuja, Nigeria. The samples were sorted out of the bad ones, then washed and peel manually with a kitchen knife to remove the outer covering of the rhizomes. It was dried for 14 days, milled into powder using a laboratory blender (Panasonic: Model 07A-08C) and then stored in an air tight well label container for further analysis. The oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction procedure; 100 g of the sample were placed in a reflux condenser which consists of a condenser and a round bottom flask. The solvent used is petroleum ether and adjusted to 65oC to reach a vaporization point before the filtrate was exposed to the atmosphere and the residual solvent was allowed to evaporate before extracting the oil. The extracted oil was mixed in ratio 1:1 to obtain ginger and garlic oil mixture (GGO).

Pre-experimental operations

Pens were fumigated two weeks prior to the commencement of the study, surroundings were cleaned and foot bath was made available to ensure strict biosecurity. Feeding and water troughs were properly washed, all other electrical fittings were properly fixed.

Experimental animals and their management

One hundred and fifty one day old (Arbo acre) broiler chicks with mixed sex were used for the experiment. The birds were purchased from a commercial hatchery in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. It was weighed on arrival on the farm to obtain their initial body weight and given anti-stress to reduce stress and prevent mortality. A deep litter housing system was used for the experiment and birds were divided to five treatments with 3 replicates of ten birds in a completely randomized design. Charcoal pots were used as source of heat and wood shavings serve as the litter material. All other management practices were strictly adhered to throughout the experiment which lasted for 8 weeks.

Ration formulation

Two basal diets were formulated at different stages of production to meet up with the requirements of birds according to NRC (1994) as presented in Table 1. Broiler starter’s mash (1-21 days), Gowers mash (22-35 days) and finishers mash (36-56 days). Birds in Treatment 1 (T1) was fed dietary inclusion of ginger and garlic oil (GGO) at 0%, while T2, T3, T4 and T5 were fed 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.4% respectively.

Measurements

Carcass evaluation: At the end of the 8th week, 3 birds were randomly selected per treatment; they were feed fasted overnight and given fresh clean water, weighed, slaughtered and manually de-feathered. The carcass weight, dressed weight, weight of the visceral organs and cut parts of the birds were recorded. Relative organ weights of the carcass were expressed in percentage (%) of dress weight of the birds.

Sensory evaluation: The sensory evaluation of cooked samples of broiler chicken breast minced meat from three birds per treatment was carried out by ten panelists. Parameters evaluated by the panelists include colour, juiciness, flavour, tenderness and overall acceptability. Each meat sample was coded and presented one after the other to each member of the panel. Each member rinsed his or her mouth with warm water after assessing each meat sample to avoid carry over effect. The panelists awarded scores using a nine (9) point hedonic scale of:

(i) Dislike extremely

(ii) Dislike very much

(iii) Dislike moderately

(iv) Dislike slightly

(v) Intermediate

(vi) Like slightly

(vii) Like moderately

(viii) Like very much

(ix) Like extremely

Phytochemical analysis: Flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, oxalates and steroids were determined using gravimetric and double gravimetric methods outlined by Harbone (1973)[16]. Phenol terpenoids and tannins were determined were estimated using methods described by Harbone (1973), Odebiyi and Sofowora (1978)[17].

Statistical analysis: Data obtained were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS (18.0) and significant means were separated using the software of the same package. Significant difference was declared if P ≤ 0.05 (Table 1).

Materials Starter (1-21 days) Grower (22-35 days) Finisher (36-56 days)
Maize 50 55 60
Wheat offal 8 8 8.05
Soya meal 28.55 22 21
Groundnut cake 10 11.55 6.05
Fish meal 2 2 2
Bone meal 0.35 0.4 0.4
Limestone 0.2 0.2 0.2
Lysine 0.15 0.15 0.15
Methionine 0.2 0.2 0.2
Premix 0.25 0.25 0.25
Salt 0.3 0.3 0.3
Total 100 100 100
Calculated analysis
Crude protein 23.08 20.11 19.33
Ether extract 5.03 4.87 4.28
Crude fibre 3.06 3.95 3.42
Calcium 0.98 1 1.1
Phosphorus 0.47 0.4 0.51
Lysine 1.17 1.29 1.6
Meth+Cyst 0.87 0.82 0.51
ME (Kcal/kg) 2936 3000.8 3100.2

Table 1: Chemical composition of experimental diets.

Result and Discussion

Phytochemical composition of ginger oil

Phytochemical composition of ginger oil is present in Table 2. Phytochemical components revealed the presence of phenols (8.21%), alkaloids (5.12%), flavonoids (7.49%), Tannins (6.52%), saponins (3.18%), streiods (2.38%), glycosides (0.18%), oxalates (0.07%) and phytate (0.02%). Phenol had the highest concentration followed by flavonoids then tannins, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, glycosides, oxalates and tannins respectively. The chemical compounds in essential oils can be affected by plant parts, method of extraction, species, climatic conditions, antinutrients (Omonijo, et al., 2018). Higher concentrations of saponins, tannins and flavonoids in ginger oil confers it the ability to function as an antioxidant, anti-microbial and antiinflammatory activities (Oluwafemi, et al., 2020; Shittu and Alagbe, et al., 2020; Okwu, et al., 2004). [18-20].(Phytochemical composition of ginger oil table).

Constituents   Composition (%)
Alkaloids 5.12
Saponins 3.18
Flavonoids 7.49
Tannins 6.52
Oxalates 0.07
Phytate 0.02
Glycosides 0.18
Steroids 2.38
Phenols 8.21

Table 2: Phytochemical composition of ginger oil.

Phytochemical composition of garlic oil

Phytochemical composition of garlic oil is present in Table 3. Phytochemical components revealed that flavonoids (10.67%), phenols (9.19%), alkaloids (7.02%), tannins (4.72%), steroids (3.65%), saponins (2.40%), glycosides (0.33%), oxalates (0.26%), phytate (0.05%). Adisa, et al., (2010) reported that tannins known to possess antibacterial and antiviral activity. Phytics and/or phytates compete with essential dietary minerals such as calcium, zinc, iron and magnesium to make them biologically unavailable for absorption (Alagbe, et al., 2019; Faizi et al., 2003)[21,22]. Phenols are strong antioxidants which prevent oxidative damage to biomolecules such as DNA, lipids and protein that play a role in chronic disease, (Ojewuyi, et al., 2014)[23]. Phenols are strong antioxidant which prevent the entry of diseases (Singh, et al., 2021; Oluwafemi, et al., 2021)[24,25]. (Phytochemical composition of Garlic oil table).

Parameters   Composition (%)
Alkaloids 7.02
Saponins 2.4
Flavonoids 10.67
Tannins 4.72
Oxalates 0.26
Phytate 0.05
Glycosides 0.33
Steroids 3.65
Phenols 9.19

Table 3: Phytochemical composition of garlic oil.

Carcass and weights of broiler chicks fed diet supplemented with garlic and ginger oil

Carcass weight of broiler chicks fed diet supplemented with garlic and ginger oil is presented in Table 4. The live weight, dress weight and dressing percentage range between 1942.6–2600.4 g, 1492.6–2245.4 g and 78.98%–86.35% respectively. Weights of head (40.86-56.46 g), breast (499.4- 880.1 g), thigh (501.3-688.3 g), wing (156.2-266.3 g), back (394.3-521.5 g), neck (85.60-115.2 g), legs (65.00-95.38 g), heart (9.85-12.06 g), spleen (1.63-2.85 g), liver (38.63- 52.00 g), kidneys (0.12–0.24 g), gizzard (53.33–63.96 g) and intestine (150.3-206.1 g). All the parameters were significantly (P˂0.05) influenced among the treatments. (Carcass and organ weights of broiler chicks fed diet supplemented with ginger and garlic oil (GGO) table.)

Parameters T1    T2    T3    T4    T5 SEM
LW (g) 1942.6b 2060.3a 2402.4a 2520.1a 2600.4a 10.89
Dress wgt (g) 1492.6b 1708.3b 2047.4a 2165.1a 2245.4a 9.06
DP (%) 78.98b 82.77a 85.22a 85.91a 86.35a 2.85
Head (g) 40.86b 45.86b 48.87b 52.76a 56.46a 12.6
Breast (g) 499.4c 731.4b 735.8b 760.3b 880.1a 24.6
Thigh (g) 501.3b 555.5b 596.3b 607.4a 688.3a 33.4
Wing (g) 156.2b 188.0b 201.7a 215.8a 266.3a 10.98
Back (g) 394.3c 458.1b 480.1b 514.4a 521.5a 9.66
Neck (g) 85.60c 95.96b 96.15b 100.8a 115.2a 8.03
Legs (g) 65.00b 88.86a 92.38a 95.20a 95.38a 5.6
Heart (g) 9.85b 10.56a 11.51a 11.81a 12.06a 1.44
Spleen (g) 1.63b 1.70b 1.93b 2.10a 2.85a 0.6
Liver (g) 38.63c 39.43c 45.13b 47.75b 52.00a 1.74
Kidneys (g) 0.12b 0.15b 0.14b 0.12b  0.24a 0.01
Gizzard (g) 58.88b 60.90a 60.93a 62.26a 63.96a 5.16
Intestine (cm) 150.3b 155.8b 165.8b 184.3b 206.1a 12.63

Table 4: Carcass and organ weights of broiler chicks fed diet supplemented with ginger and garlic oil (GGO).

Relative organ weight and primal cut parts of broiler chicks fed different inclusions of GGO

Relative organ weight and primal cut parts of broiler chicks fed diet supplemented with ginger and garlic oil is Table 5. The head, breast, thigh, wing, back, neck, legs, heart, spleen, liver, kidneys and gizzard ranges between 2.44%- 2.74%, 33.19%-42.81%, 28.05%-33.59%, 9.97%-11.86%, 23.23%–26.42%, 4.66%–5.73%, 4.25%–5.20%, 0.54%– 0.66%, 0.09%–0.13%, 2.20%–2.59%, 0.003%-0.008% and 2.85%–3.94%. Significant differences (P˂0.05) were observed among the birds in each of the treatments.

Parameters (%) T1   T2   T3   T4    T5 SEM
Head 2.74a 2.68a 2.38b 2.44b  2.57a 0.11
Breast 33.46b 42.81a 35.93b 35.12b 31.19b 2.65
Thigh 33.59a 32.52a 29.12b 28.05b 30.54a 0.42
Wing 10.46a 11.01a 9.85b 9.97b 11.86a 0.51
Back 26.42a 26.82a 23.45b 23.76b 23.23b 2.66
Neck 5.73a 5.62a 4.69b 4.66b 5.13a 0.54
Legs 4.36b 5.20a 4.59b 4.39b 4.25b 0.02
Heart 0.66a 0.62a 0.56b 0.55b 0.54b 0.01
Spleen 0.11b 0.09a 0.09a 0.09a 0.13b 0.01
Liver 2.59a 2.31a 2.20b 2.21b 2.32a 0.12
Kidneys 0.003b 0.008a 0.007a 0.006a 0.004b 0.001
Gizzard 3.94a 3.56a 2.98b 2.88b 2.85b 0.13

Table 5: Relative organ weights and primal cut parts of broiler chicks fed diet with different inclusion of GGO.

Carcass and relative organ weights of birds revealed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) among the treatments. Carcass weights were highest in T2, T3, T4 and T5 and lowest in T1. The dressing percentage values were in close agreement with the findings of Kirkpinzar, et al., (2014) who examined the effect of garlic and oregano oil on the carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Similar result was observed by Tihonen, et al., (2010), who recorded a higher dressing percentage in birds fed 0.3% garlic oil. Significant differences (P<0.05) observed among the various organs indicated that garlic and ginger oil are non-toxic since there was no noticeable inflammation on the internal organs of the animals. According to Alagbe, et al., (2017)[26], presence of antinutritional factors is associated with enlargements of internal organs like liver, kidney, pancreas and spleen. Similarly, Bamgbose, et al., (2004)[27] reported that dress weight and internal organs weight characteristics are veritable indicators of the level of reduction or otherwise of anti-nutritional factors. Phytochemicals in the test material has proven to increase the absorption of nutrients which translates to a better final weight gain among birds. (Relative organ weights and primal cut parts of broiler chicks fed diet with different inclusion of GGO table.)

Sensory evaluation of meat from broiler chicks fed diet supplemented with ginger and garlic oil mixture

Sensory evaluation of broilers fed diets containing ginger and garlic oil mixtures is presented in Table 6. The Parameter examined includes, tenderness, juiciness, flavour, colour, and aroma. Tenderness values ranges from 4.32–9.04, juiciness (6.60–8.90), flavour (5.72-8.37), colour (7.36–7.80) and aroma (6.42–8.93). Significant differences (P<0.05) were observed among tenderness, juiciness, flavour and aroma. Colour values were not significant influenced (P>0.05) among the treatments.

Parameters T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 SEM
Tenderness 4.32c 7.01b 8.33a 8.56a 9.04a 0.66
Juiciness 6.60c 7.73b 8.02a 8.50a 8.96a 0.52
Flavour 5.72c 7.86b 7.92b 8.10a 8.37a 0.21
Colour 7.36 7.43 7.5 7.73 7.8 0.14
Aroma 6.42b 8.10a 8.62a 8.80a 8.93a 0.1

Table 6: Sensory evaluation of meat from broiler chicks fed diet supplemented with ginger and garlic oil mixture.

Sensory evaluation of broiler chicken fed diet supplemented with garlic and ginger oil mixture (GGO) revealed that the meat tenderness, flavour, juiciness and aroma were significantly affected (P<0.05). This is a clear indication that GGO contains phytochemicals which are capable of enhancing the quality of meat. The result obtained was in agreement with the findings of Barreto, et al., (2008); Pisarski, et al., (2007); Musa, et al., (2020)[ 28 ] when different mixture was fed to broiler chicks but contrary to the reports of Symeon, et al., (2009); Burt,et al., (2000) who fed broilers diet supplemented with 250 mg/kg oregano essential oil. The non-significant differences (P>0.05) recorded in the colour of the meat clearly shows that GGO has no carotene content. According to Young, et al., (2003)[29], dietary supplementation of oregano and neem oil in broiler chickens at 3% is capable of affecting the colour in the muscle. (Sensory evaluation of meat from broiler chicks fed diet supplemented with ginger and garlic oil mixture table).

Conclusion

Essential oils are rich in secondary metabolites which are potential sources of drugs and essential oils of therapeutic importance. Essential oils are cheap, safe, effective and easily available. Dietary inclusion of GGO in broilers is capable of performing several pharmacological activities which includes: antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory,hepato-protective, hypolipidemic, cytotoxic etc. it can be used to further help to bridge the gap between food safety and production and can be included in the diets of broilers up to 0.4% without causing any deleterious effect on the health and performance of birds.

References

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