Editorial - Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Allied Science (2021) Volume 5, Issue 3
Editorial on hookworm disease in ruminants.
Veena Priyadarshini S *
School of Life Sciences, B.S. Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Veena Priyadarshini S
School of Life Sciences
B.S. Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Tel: 9500084421r> E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 18, 2021; Accepted Date: November 28, 2021; Published Date: November 30, 2021
Citation: Veena Priyadarshini S (2021) Editorial on hookworm disease in ruminants . J Vet Med Allied Sci 2021, Vol. 5 Iss. 3:2 .
Hookworms can be found in all farm animals except horses. The following are the main species; In Cattle, Bunostomum phlebotomum is the most common, while Agriostomum vryburgi can be found in Asian and South American cattle. In Sheep, B. trigonocephalum is distributed all around the world, while Gaigeria pachyscelis is found only in India, Indonesia, South America, and Africa. Globocephalus spp. are also found in pigs, however they are rarely of clinical significance. Hookworms are 1 to 2.5 cm long reddish-colored nematodes that live in their hosts' small intestines. The females lay a lot of eggs, and the life cycle is simple. The eggs hatch, and two nonparasitic larval stages emerge, both of which are highly vulnerable to desiccation. Under ideal conditions, an infective larva can be developed in about a week.
In the case of G. pachyscelis, transmission is solely through skin penetration, although Bunostomum spp. larvae can enter the body through the skin or the mouth. Larvae do the following after cutaneous penetration:
• Enter the bloodstream
• Travel to the heart and lungs
• Enter the alveoli, where the fourth stage larvae develop
• Travel up the airways to the pharynx
• Arrive at the small intestine
Ingestible larvae pass through the intestinal wall and return to the lumen without moving farther. The fourth-stage larvae of B. trigonocephalum infestations. When the environment is wet, the chances of infestation by percutaneous entry are greatly increased, and this, combined with the larvae's susceptibility to desiccation, results in a higher incidence of the disease in humid subtropical or warm temperate countries like the southern United States, Mexico, Africa, Asia, northern Australia, and parts of Europe. In milder temperate climates, severe infestations of sheep or cattle are unusual, but they do happen periodically when animals are wintered in filthy conditions with insufficient bedding. In cattle, immunity to B. phlebotomum tends to grow with age, and animals that have been infected for one year appear to be entirely immune the following year. Calves between the ages of four and twelve months are the most usually affected, and the severity of the infection is always at its peak during the winter months.
Hookworms are bloodsucking parasites that induce severe anemia in all animals. In young cattle, total worm levels as low as 100 can produce clinical disease, and as high as 2000 can cause mortality. There is a loss of entire blood, which might lead to hypoproteinemia edemas. Mild or intermittent diarrhea is unavoidable due to inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.
The penetration of the skin by larvae can cause irritation and allow harmful microorganisms to enter the body. Fidgeting, stamping, and licking of the feet have been reported in stabled cattle with minor infestations. Constipation is common in the early stages, along with minor abdominal pain, and is followed by bouts of diarrhea. The animals are poor and malnourished. In severe infestations, mucosal pallor, weakness, anasarca under the jaw and around the abdomen, prostration, and death occur within 2 to 3 days. Sheep show indications that are comparable to those seen in cattle. Even after therapy, the convalescent period is prolonged unless the diet is supplemented to encourage erythrocyte synthesis.
Hookworms connected to the mucosa can be found readily, but they are rare. Total worm counts of 100 or more in calves indicate a substantial level of infection; values of over 2000 worms indicate a lethal level of infestation. Adult G. pachyscelis has been found to be lethal in 24 sheep and goats. Most of the worms are in the first few feet of the small intestine, and the contents of the gut are frequently stained with blood. In sheep, B. trigonocephalum has been found to be primarily in the jejunum and ileum. Hookworms are frequently found in a mixed infection with several or many gastrointestinal nematodes. Wet environments, such as those found in pastures, yards, and barns, should be avoided to limit the risk of percutaneous infestation and the viability of free-living larvae. It is best to prevent overcrowding sheep or calves in small quarters. Treatment should be given on a regular basis in high-risk situations. Although some species of deer have been identified as a source of infection for B. phlebotomum, the hookworm of cattle will not infect sheep and vice versa, therefore alternate grazing may be beneficial