Editorial - Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Allied Science (2021) Volume 5, Issue 3
Editorial on bovine tuberculosis.
Veena Priyadarshini S *
School of Life Sciences, B.S. Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Veena Priyadarshini S
School of Life Sciences
B.S. Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Tel: 9500084421r> E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 18, 2021; Accepted Date: November 28, 2021; Published Date: November 30, 2021
Citation: Veena Priyadarshini S (2021) Editorial on bovine tuberculosis . J Vet Med Allied Sci 2021, Vol. 5 Iss. 3:1 .
Mycobacterium bovis causes tuberculosis (TB) in cattle. Sunlight kills M. bovis, although it is resistant to desiccation and can survive in a variety of acids and alkalis. It may also survive in moist, warm soil for lengthy periods of time. It will live for 1–8 weeks in cattle feces. Human tuberculosis is caused by bovine tuberculosis, which is a zoonotic disease. Although the disease can be transferred through raw milk, pasteurization effectively stops the disease from spreading through milk. Several wild mammal species have been found to have M. bovis. Badgers have been proven to have high rates of infection, and scientists agree that badgers are a key source of TB in cattle. However, there appears to be a link between the type of landscape (for example, southwest England) and badger risk. M. bovis infects people and has been a leading cause of death in humans in the United Kingdom in the past. When animals are malnourished or stressed, they are more susceptible to become infected with M. bovis. The most vulnerable animals are growing heifers and younger cows. There's evidence that more intensive dairy farms are more susceptible to illness.
Bovine tuberculosis is most usually detected in the lymph glands of the throat and lungs of infected cattle. This means that the bacteria that cause the sickness are primarily expelled from the afflicted animal's body through its breath or nasal or oral discharges. The bacteria is spread primarily through inhalation or ingestion. Infection can also be spread by contaminated food and drink. Bovine tuberculosis is spread between cattle, badgers, and the two species. This illness can be spread by cattle to other livestock:
1. Directly through the respiratory system
2. Directly through tainted milk
3. Through the placenta directly before birth
4. Indirectly by poisoning of the environment
Badgers can directly transmit the disease to other badgers through close contact, such as between mother and cub. Badgers and cattle can both contract the disease:
i) Directly through proximity
ii) Indirectly by contaminated sputum, feces, urine, or abscess and skin lesion discharges contaminating the environment.
Humans may become infected in impoverished countries, particularly in rural locations where living quarters are shared by humans and animals. Traditional molecular epidemiological approaches to illness source attribution are being revolutionized by genomic technologies, owing to their much higher resolution. The application of this theory to bovine TB infectious systems has the potential to increase our understanding of transmission dynamics. Many developed countries have successfully decreased or eradicated bovine TB in their cattle populations by using effective control techniques such as testing and culling infected animals, active surveillance, and movement restrictions in afflicted areas. However, bovine TB continues to have a considerable influence on livestock output and community livelihoods in impoverished and marginalized communities.
Understanding the immunological responses that arise in cattle after infection with Mycobacterium bovis is critical for both understanding disease etiology and the logical development of immune-dependent tools like diagnostic tests and vaccinations to battle the disease. Cell-mediated immune responses (CMI) prevail within a spectrum of immunity, according to studies of field cases of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and experimental bovine models of M. bovis infection. In most studies of tuberculous pleuritis, strong proliferative and type 1 cytokine responses, such as interferon (IFN), interleukin (IL)-2, and IL12, are observed in pleural effusion cells, with concomitant blastokinesis inhibition and predominantly type 2 cytokine expression, such as IL-4, in the patients' peripheral blood. In addition to tuberculous pleuritis, researchers have discovered mycobacterial antigen-specific DNA synthesis and IFNproduction in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, which is not found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).