Editorial - Journal of Psychology and Cognition (2021) Volume 6, Issue 5
Editorial Note on HomophobiaSowmya Vennam*
Department of Pharmacy, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sowmya Vennam
Department of Pharmacy
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
Hyderabad, Telangana, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Accepted date: May 25, 2021
Homophobia refers to various negative attitudes toward homosexual individuals that may be expressed at the individual, cultural, and institutional level.
While homophobia has evolved throughout history, it continues to create a significant negative impact on those who are the unfortunate targets of contempt, prejudice, and violence.
While the term homophobia conjures up images of those who are afraid of homosexuality or those who identify as LGBTQ+, it actually refers to those who dislike other gay people.
Homophobia against certain groups
While homophobia has traditionally been associated with lesbians and homosexual people, the word also includes bisexual people as well as transgender and transsexual people. There are, however, unique labels for distinct categories of LGBTQ+ people that represent various orientations. Homophobia directed toward lesbians is referred to as lesbophobia (women who are attracted to women). Biphobia is the term used to describe homophobia directed against bisexual persons (individuals who are attracted to people of both sexes whether they are considered a man, woman, non-binary, trans, etc.)
Homophobia appears to arise from ignorance or an irrational fear of the unknown in general, based on how it differs by numerous social and cultural circumstances.
Homophobia is a relatively new concept (in terms of history), having been coined in the 1960s by psychologist George Weinberg. Homophobia, on the other hand, can be traced all the way back to ancient Greece, when it was first considered in popular culture.
The American Psychiatric Association decided to declassify homosexuality as a diagnosable mental disease in 1973. In 1992, the American Psychological Association (APA) issued the following statement:
"While homosexuality does not in and of itself impair judgement, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational abilities, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) urges all international health organisations, psychiatric organisations, and individual psychiatrists in other countries to advocate for the repeal of legislation that criminalises homosexual acts by consent in their own countries. Furthermore, the APA encourages these groups and individuals to do everything they can to reduce the stigma associated with homosexuality wherever and whenever it occurs."
Homophobia can be caused by a variety of factors. Some people have an obvious cause, such as their religious background, while others are unaware of the source of their homophobia (or even that they are homophobic).
Religion has long been seen to be a source of homophobia. According to certain faiths, gay inclination is unethical or a sin. As a result, persons who follow these religions will have this as their cultural understanding. It might be tough to adjust or modify this sort of early learning.
Some study has been done on the idea that those who participate in homophobia may have suppressed gay urges. Individuals who showed more homophobia had a larger erectile reaction while watching explicit sexual imagery than those who did not show homophobic attitudes, according to a well-known research done at the University of George in 1996.
This finding was used to imply that homophobia might be a mask for internalised desires. This has also been used to explain why certain religious leaders may be openly homophobic yet subsequently confess to gay behaviour.
Age, ethnicity, geographic location, race, sex, socioeconomic class, degree of education, religion, and party identity all had a role in homophobia, according to a 2019 research.
This implies that there are several potential reasons of homophobia, and that while developing awareness efforts, we must take all of these issues into account.
It has been suggested that there is a power struggle going on, and that homophobia is one means for the bigger group to subjugate minority and create a power imbalance. To put it another way, the dominant group does not want to give up its power, so they establish ubiquitous social standards that define what is and is not acceptable.
As scholars try to comprehend these psychological phenomena, many varieties of homophobia have been recognised and categorised. The major categories that have been generally classified are the four categories listed below.
• Internalized Homophobia
• Interpersonal Homophobia
• Institutional Homophobia
• Cultural Homophobia