Journal of Psychology and Cognition

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Editorial - Journal of Psychology and Cognition (2021) Volume 6, Issue 5

Editorial Note on Bipolar Disorder

Sowmya Vennam*

Department of Pharmacy, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

*Corresponding Author:
Sowmya Vennam
Department of Pharmacy
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
Hyderabad, Telangana, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Accepted date: May 25, 2021

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Abstract

  

Editorial

Bipolar disorder, often known as manic depression, is a mental condition characterised by extreme mood swings, as well as changes in sleep, activity, thinking, and behaviour. People with bipolar illness might experience moments of extreme happiness and vigour, as well as moments of extreme sadness, hopelessness, and sluggishness.

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness marked by periods (or episodes) of severe mood swings that alter emotion, thinking, and behaviour. Bipolar disorders are divided into two categories. Bipolar I disorder is characterised by periods of intense mania and, in some cases, depression. Hypomania is a less severe variant of mania in bipolar II illness. There's also cyclothymic disorder, which is a third form.

Bipolar disorder is estimated to affect 4.4 percent of individuals in the United States at some time in their life. Bipolar disease is assumed to be caused in part by genetics, although brain abnormalities and environmental circumstances also play a role. Mood stabilisers are typically the first-line treatment, although severe symptoms may need electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Mood swings aren't the only symptom of bipolar illness. It's a dangerous mental illness that was formerly known as manic depression.

According to the DSM-5, a manual for diagnosing mental diseases, bipolar disorder can be classified into two kinds based on the severity and nature of symptoms:

Bipolar I- People who have bipolar I have at least one manic episode in their lifetime. Although it is not necessary for a formal diagnosis, the great majority of people will have significant depressive episodes at some point in their life.

Bipolar II - It is characterised by at least one hypomanic episode (a milder form of mania) and at least one severe depressive episode.

Assessing symptoms

Blood tests or imaging scans will not assist diagnose bipolar disorder because it is a mental health illness, but they may be requested to rule out physiological disorders that may be contributing to the symptoms. A person must fulfil the criteria listed above (symptoms and frequency), which will be verified through a psychiatric exam, to confirm a diagnosis.

Although the symptoms of bipolar illness are the same in men and women, society and gender norms can influence how they present and are perceived by others.

Bipolar mania symptoms

The duration of a manic episode is at least seven days. Hypomanic episodes have the same symptoms as manic episodes, but the person's functionality isn't significantly disrupted, and psychotic symptoms aren't present.

The following are signs and symptoms of a manic or hypomanic episode:

• Sleep requirements are reduced.

• Excessive talking

• Thoughts that race

• The ability to be easily distracted

• Constant movement and physical agitation

• Increased urge for sexual activity

• Risky impulsive acts (including gambling and lavish spending)

• Irresponsible or grandiose behaviour

• Irritability, hostility, or aggressiveness is all signs of irritability, hostility, or violence.

• Hallucinations or delusions

Bipolar depression symptoms

An individual may experience the following symptoms during a depressed episode:

• Crying uncontrollably or for lengthy lengths of time

• Guilt or a sense of despondency

• Loss of enthusiasm for tasks that used to bring you joy

• Excessive exhaustion, including difficulty to get out of bed

• a lack of interest in your health, diet, or attractiveness

• Having trouble focusing or remembering things

• Sleeping too much or having trouble sleeping

• Suicidal ideation or a desire to hurt oneself

When someone has bipolar depression, others may notice problems with cognitive abilities such as short-term memory loss, difficulty concentrating, and indecision. It can obstruct an individual's functioning and make completing activities harder.

Physical Signs and symptoms of depressive episodes

Individuals may suffer a range of physical symptoms during depressed episodes, including inexplicable aches and pains.

Weight fluctuations are also typical. While some individuals find it difficult to eat when they are depressed, others seek consolation in eating. As a result, weight loss and increase can both be signs of a depressed episode.

Psychomotor agitation, which is characterised by an increase in activity driven by mental rather than physical strain, or psychomotor retardation, which is characterised by a slowing of both thinking and physical activities, can also occur.

Differential diagnosis

There are specific diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder that have been presented, however even with these criteria, the diagnosis is difficult. Psychiatric disorders that have symptoms that are comparable to bipolar disorder include:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

• Alcohol/Substance Abuse

• Borderline Personality Disorder

• Delusional Disorder

Depression

• Eating Disorders

• Panic Disorder

• Schizophrenia

• Schizoaffective Disorder

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