Opinion Article - The Cognitive Neuroscience Journal (2022) Volume 5, Issue 3
Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system in lymphoma with bone and subcutaneous tissue.
Department of Physical Therapy, Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Norway
- *Corresponding Author:
- Maria Dusinska
Department of Physical Therapy
Human Health Sciences
Graduate School of Medicine
Received: 06-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AACNJ-22-67417; Editor assigned: 07-Jun-2022, PreQC No. AACNJ-22-67417(PQ); Reviewed: 21-Jun-2022, QC No. AACNJ-22-67417; Revised: 23-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AACNJ-22-67417(R); Published: 30-Jun-2022, DOI:10.35841/aacnj-5.3.115
Citation: Dusinska M. Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system in lymphoma with bone and subcutaneous tissue. J Cogn Neurosci. 2022;5(3):115
Physiological psychology, Cognitive psychology.
The proper functioning of the Lower Urinary Tract (LUT), which consists of the bladder and its exits (bladder neck, urethra, urethral sphincter), depends on a complex nervous control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia [ 1]. The bladder has only two modes of operation, storage and urination, and unlike other internal organs, its neuroautonomic control has a switch-like pattern of activity . However, urination is also subject to voluntary control. It occurs during the maturation of the nervous system in infancy and requires temporal coordination of the efferent mechanisms of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. Given the neurological complexity of the mechanisms that control LUTs, it is clear that abnormalities in the nervous system affect urine storage and can lead to urinary incontinence . In healthy subjects, bladder pressure remains relatively constant during bladder filling until the urination threshold (usually 350-500 mL) is reached. The passive phenomenon of bladder regulation to maintain low pressure during maturation is strictly dependent on the rest of the parasympathetic efferent pathway while the sympathetic afferents are active at the same time as increased urethral sphincter activity. Overactive Bladder (OAB) may be an example of abnormal functioning of the autonomic nervous system "ANS". Involuntary contractions of the detrusor muscle cannot be suppressed, which may lead to recurrence of involuntary urination. This narrative review presents current knowledge of the effects of ANS anomalies on LUT function.
Autonomic nervous system
ANS plays an important role in regulating the activity and metabolism of internal organs and maintaining the homeostasis of the body. ANS consists of two parts. The sympathetic nervous system is "responsible for storing urine." The parasympathetic nervous system is "mainly involved in emptying the bladder." The ANS centers are located in the brainstem and spinal cord, and fibers from these centers are passed to the autonomic ganglion as preganglionic fibers. ANS also contains sensory afferent fibers .
Sympathetic skin reaction
The Sympathetic Cutaneous Response (SSR) is a test that reflects the function of unmyelinated postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibres due to slow conduction. SSR may reveal early ANS dysfunction, which may be related to OAB. SSR is based on the measurement of sweat secretion (skin sweat gland motor function). The measuring unit consists of an active electrode that sends impulses and a reference electrode that records impulses. Both electrodes are placed on the skin .
- Low PA. Autonomic nervous system function. J Clin Neurophysiol. 1993;10(1):14-27.
- Ravits JM. Autonomic nervous system testing. Muscle & Nerve. J AANEM. 1997;20(8):919-37.
- Kreibig SD. Autonomic nervous system activity in emotion. Biol Psychol. 2010;84(3):394-421.
- Zygmunt A, Stanczyk J. Methods of evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. Arch Med Sci. 2010;6(1):11-8.
- Ekman P, Levenson RW, Friesen WV. Autonomic nervous system activity distinguishes among emotions. sci.1983;21(16):1208-10.