Current Pediatric Research

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Research Article - Current Pediatric Research (2021) Volume 25, Issue 6

Comparison of imaging and laparoscopy in diagnosis of non-palpable undescended testes.

Raad Talib Alkarawi 1, Maryam Jabar Ghazi 1, Jasim Abdoalhasan Almayali 1, Alaa Jumaah Manji Nasrawi 2*

1Department of Urology, University of Kufa, College of Medicine, Kufa, Najaf Governorate, Iraq

2Department of Pediatrics, University of Medicine, College of Medicine,Kufa, Najaf Governorate, Iraq

Corresponding Author:
Alaa Jumaah Manji Nasrawi
Department of Pediatrics
University of Medicine
College of Medicine
Kufa, Najaf Governorate,
Tel: 009647813088044
E-mail: [email protected]

Accepted date: June 10th, 2021

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Objective: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound and MRI in comparison with laparoscopy in the detection of non-palpable undescended testes.

Patients and Methods: 42 patients with non-palpable undescended testis were submitted to US, MRI and laparoscopy from October 2014 to October 2020 in the urology department of Al-Sader Medical City, Najaf. Laparoscopic findings were compared with US and MRI results.

Results: Sensitivity was 60%, 70% and 100% and specificity was 30%, 50% and 100% for US, MRI and laparoscopy, respectively.

Conclusion: Laparoscopy is more superior to US and MRI in the detection of non-palpable undescended testis.


Undescended testis, US, MRI, Laparoscopy.


Cryptorchidism is common congenital anomalies affecting male genitalia, it occurred in 1% to 4% of full-term and 1% to 45% of premature infant, the incidence decreases to about 1% at 1 year of age [1,2].

About 80% of cases are palpable and 70% in one side; more common in right [3].

Non-palpable testes which cannot be identify by clinical examination is either intra-abdominal, absent (vanishing), atrophic, or missed on physical examination [4].

The etiology of cryptorchidism is multifactorial. About 25% of cases had a positive family [5].

A normal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is an important for descent of the testes [6].

Disease accompany with reduce intra-abdominal pressure like prune belly syndrome, omphalocele, and gastroschisis increased risk of undescended testes [7,8].

The accuracy of imaging testing for detection of undescended testis is about 40% [9]. The first diagnostic laparoscopy for impalpable testes in 1976 [10].

Aim of the study

To assess accuracy of ultrasound and MRI in comparison with laparoscopy in detection of non-palpable undescended testes.

Patients and Methods

Our study enrolled 42 patients with 49 non-palpable undescended testes from October 2014 to October 2020 in the Urology-Department of Al-Sader Medical City, Najaf. The age of those patients ranges from 1 year to 12 years (mean 4.2 years). They underwent detailed clinical examination, ultrasound and MRI. All those patients with non-palpable undescended testes underwent laparoscopy.

Laparoscopic techinque

Preoperative investigations and informed consents were taken from patients and their relative. The patient was placed in supine position under the effect of general anaesthesia with endotracheal tube, with urethral Foley's catheter inserted to empty the bladder, and CO2 insufflation was done to create a pneumoperitoneum by Vereesneedle at flow rate of 8-10 L/min, and pressure of 8-10 mmHg. Camera port was inserted through a small umbilical incision.

The following features were noted:Internal ring, vessels and vas status; presence of testis; its size and position.

Two other ports were put for processes like laparoscopic orchiopexy or orchiectomy.


Fouty two patients with 49 non-palpable undescended testes. 20 cases in right side, 15 cases in left one and 7 cases were bilateral. U/S and MRI results were compared with laparoscopic findings (Tables 1 and 2). In five non-palpable testes (10.2%), Vas and testicular vessels passing the internal ring, after an inguinal exploration, orchiopexy was carry out in three testes and orchiectomy in two testes, because it was extremely atrophied.

Side No. of patients %
Right 20 47.6
Left 15 35.7
Bilateral 7 16.7

Table 1. Side of non-palpable testes by physical examination.

Site No. of Testes %
Intra-abdominal testes 36 73.4
Vas and vessels entering the internal ring. 5 10.2
Intra-abdominal blindly ending vessels. (vanish testis) 8 16.4

Table 2 : Laparascopic finding of non-palpable undescended tests.

Blind-ending testicular vessels were found in 8 testes (16.4%) and these cases were considered as vanishing testes.

Thirty-six testes (73.4%) were found intra-abdominally; where orchiopexy done in 31 testes and orchiectomy in 5 testes because they were atrophied.

Sensitivity was 60%, 70% and 100% and specificity was 30%, 50% and 100% for Ultrasound, MRI and Laparoscopy respectively (Table 3).

Technique Sensitivity Specificity
US 60% 30%
MRI 70% 50%
Laparoscopy 100% 100%

Table 3. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of US, MRI and laparoscopy.


Cryptorchidism is common congenital anomalies. About 20% of cases are clinically non-palpable [3].

The goal of operation for non-palpable undescended testis is to detect testis and guide it to the scrotum when possible, to preserve its function and early detection in case of malignancy [11,12].

Many imaging tests have been used to diagnose non palpable testes like U/S, magnetic resonance imaging and venography but none of these imaging can detect the actual position of the testis accurately [13].

Diagnostic laparoscopy for the non-palpable testis first introduced by Cortesi et al. [10] and Scott et al. first one used it in paediatrics [14].

Laparoscopy has diagnostic and therapeutic benefit like laparoscopic orchidopexy or orchidectomy [15].

Kanwal et al. found that the sensitivity was 20%, 63% and 100% and specificity was 10%, 50% and 100% for ultrasound, CT-Scan and laparoscopy, respectively [16]. While Shah et al. demonstrated that the sensitivity was 60% and 55% of ultrasound and MRI, respectively [17].

In our study, the sensitivity of ultrasound was 60% and MRI was 70% while for laparoscopy was 100%. We found that laparoscopy is highly accurate in identify of non-palpable undescended testes. Orchiectomy and orchiopexy were done laparoscopically for intra-abdominal testes.


Laparoscopy is more accurate than image in the detection of non-palpable undescended testis. Laparoscopic Orchiectomy or orchiopexy can be performed.


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