Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (629)348-3199

Short Communication - Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy (2022) Volume 7, Issue 4

Clinical toxoplasmosis care and screening in zoo animals and its management.

Rosangela Blima*

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Rosangela Blima
Department of Medical. Sciences and Public Health
University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy

Received: 28-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AAPDDT-22-69426; Editor assigned: 30-Jun-2022, PreQC No. AAPDDT-22-69426 (PQ); Reviewed: 14-Jul-2022, QC No. AAPDDT-22-69426; Revised: 19-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. AAPDDT-22-69426 (R); Published: 27-Jul-2022, DOI: 10.35841/2591-7846-7.4.117

Citation: Blima R. Clinical toxoplasmosis care and screening in zoo animals and its management. J Parasit Dis Diagn Ther. 2022;7(4):117


Pre-birth orderly screening for intrinsic toxoplasmosis has been performed in Austria and France since 1975 and neonatal screening for inherent toxoplasmosis has been portion of the Unused Britain Infant screening program since 1986. In this story audit we survey the information driving up to the orderly screening programs in Austria and France, highlighting the most finding of the European Union financed inquire about within the 1990s and early 2000s. Distinctive graphic considers of the impact of pre- or postnatal treatment is examined. Toxoplasma gondii has distinctive hereditary heredities with distinctive pathogenicity in people. Diseases by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, are broadly predominant in people and creatures around the world. Toxoplasmosis in a few creature species in zoos is of both clinical and open wellbeing significance. Among captive creatures, T. gondii contaminations in Australasian marsupials (kangaroos, wallabies), Unused World non-human primates (squirrel monkeys), certain wild felids (Pallas’ cats), and certain avian species (canaries and finches) can be annihilating.


Toxoplasma Gondii, Congenital Toxoplasmosis, Screening.


Contaminations by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, are predominant around the world in for all intents and purposes all warm-blooded creatures and people. One reason for the broad dispersion of T. gondii is its modes of transmission by carnivores, Trans placental, fecal-oral, and by a few other minor modes of transmission, counting lactogenic and venereal. Felids (both residential and wild) are the as it were conclusive has since they as it were can discharge naturally safe oocytes in their feces [1].

The environment is profoundly sullied with T. Gondi oocytes, counting marine waters. The primary human case attributed to contamination with T. gondii was a child with hydrocephalus reported by detailed the primary case of encephalitis due to T. gondii. Amid the 1940s, there was a moved forward understanding of the cause of maternal disease for intrinsic toxoplasmosis in newborns. In 1953, Feldman detailed an arrangement of 103 children, 99% of whom had eye injuries, 63% had intracranial calcifications, and 56% had psychomotor impediment. This started intrigued in intrinsic contamination among researchers in Europe [2].

The common environment of Pallas’ cats is the tall mountains of Tibet, western Siberia, Turkestan, western China, and Mongolia. Restricted considers propose that Pallas’ cats are seldom uncovered to T. gondii in their characteristic environment [3]. In one think about, antibodies to T. gondii were recognized as it were in as it were 2 of 15 wild Pallas’ cats and there was no prove of T. gondii disease in 15 household cats (Felix Cactus) or 45 prey species in Mongolia . This moo introduction to T. gondii is likely related to tall height, cold climate on sporulation and survival of oocytes. It has been recommended that the Pallas’ cat may not have co-evolved with T. gondii. From an administration point of view, most Pallas’ cats likely ended up contaminated after importation to zoos and indeed grown-up cats can kick the bucket of overpowering toxoplasmosis. A case in point is of a 6-year-old Pallas’ cat that kicked the bucket in a zoo in USA. A consider from Lyon, France, taken after a cohort of 554 T. gondii contaminated pregnant ladies from 1987 and 1995 [4].

The think about compared treatment inside 4 weeks after seroconversions with treatment after a delay of 4–7 weeks from seroconversion. The balanced chances proportions (OR) for mother to child transmission after a treatment delay of 4–7 weeks was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.73) and after more than 8 weeks 1.44 (95% CI: 0.60, 3.31). The balanced OR related with spiramycin alone compared with pyrimethaminesulfadiazine treatment was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.84) and the OR for no treatment compared with pyrimethaminesulfadiazine treatment was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.37, 3.03). The creators hypothesized that the nonappearance of an impact of pre-birth treatment was due to transmission some time recently the begin of treatment [5].


The cat was kept in an encased show with an exterior fenced run. She had been anorectic for three days, with labored respirations, one day some time recently passing. Unmistakable net injuries were seen within the liver, lungs, pancreas, and lymph hubs. Minutely, the foremost extreme injuries as well as the greatest number of T. gondii living beings were found within the little digestive system, liver, and lungs. The little intestinal lumen and shallow villar epithelial cells contained schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts. The transcendent injury within the little digestive tract was rot of the lamina propria with various tachyzoites. The enteric injuries and entero-epithelial stages demonstrated that the cat got to be contaminated orally by eating T. gondii contaminated prey. Cats can begin excreting oocysts as before long as three days after ingesting T. gondii tissue blisters.


  1. Desmonts G, Couvreur J. Congenital toxoplasmosis: a prospective study of 378 pregnancies. N. Engl. J. Med. 1974;290(20):1110-6.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Valentini P, Annunziata ML, Angelone DF, et al. Role of spiramycin/cotrimoxazole association in the mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis infection in pregnancy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28(3):297-300.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Freeman K, Salt A, Prusa A, et al. Association between congenital toxoplasmosis and parent-reported developmental outcomes, concerns, and impairments, in 3 year old children. BMC pediatrics. 2005;5(1):1-0.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Galal L, Hamidovic A, Darde ML, et al. Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii strains at the global level and its determinants. Food and Waterborne Parasitology. 2019; 15:e00052.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Gilbert RE, Peckham CS. Congenital toxoplasmosis in the United Kingdom: to screen or not to screen?. J Med Screen. 2002;9(3):135-41.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App