Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology

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Perspective - Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology (2023) Volume 7, Issue 4

Causes, symptoms and treatment of dysmenorrhea

Tong Min*

Department of Pharmacy, University of Chinese Medicine Nanjing, Nanjing, China

Corresponding Author:
Tong Min
Department of Pharmacy
University of Chinese Medicine Nanjing
Nanjing, China

Received: 04-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AAGGS-23-106089; Editor assigned: 06-Jul-2023, PreQC No. AAGGS-23-106089(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Jul-2023, QC No. AAGGS-23-106089; Revised: 24-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AAGGS-23-106089(R); Published: 29-Jul-2023, DOI:10.35841/2591-7994-7.4.159

Citation: Min T. Causes, symptoms and treatment of dysmenorrhea.2023;7(4):159

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Dysmenorrhea, commonly known as menstrual cramps, is a prevalent condition that affects many women during their reproductive years. It is characterized by painful menstrual periods that can significantly impact a woman's quality of life. This article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of dysmenorrhea, including its causes, symptoms and various treatment options available. Dysmenorrhea can be classified into two types: primary and secondary. Primary dysmenorrhea refers to menstrual pain without any underlying medical condition, while secondary dysmenorrhea is associated with an underlying condition, such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids. The primary cause of primary dysmenorrhea is the release of prostaglandins, hormone-like substances that trigger uterine contractions. These contractions can restrict blood flow to the uterus, resulting in pain and discomfort [1].

The most common symptom of dysmenorrhea is pelvic pain, which typically occurs a day or two before menstruation and may last for several days. The pain is often described as cramping, sharp, or throbbing in nature. Other associated symptoms include lower back pain, nausea, vomiting, headaches, fatigue and diarrhea. The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to debilitating, affecting a woman's ability to carry out daily activities [2].

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Overthe- counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen or naproxen sodium are commonly used to alleviate menstrual pain. These medications work by reducing the production of prostaglandins, thereby relieving pain and reducing inflammation.

Hormonal Birth Control: Oral contraceptives, hormonal patches, or intrauterine devices (IUDs) can help regulate hormonal imbalances and reduce the severity of dysmenorrhea. These methods prevent ovulation and can decrease the release of prostaglandins, resulting in milder menstrual pain [3].

Heat Therapy: Applying a heating pad or taking a warm bath can help relax the uterine muscles and alleviate pain. Heat therapy increases blood flow to the pelvic area, reducing cramping and discomfort.

Exercise and Relaxation Techniques: Regular physical exercise, such as walking or yoga, can help reduce menstrual pain by promoting blood circulation and releasing endorphins, which are natural painkillers. Additionally, relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation and mindfulness can help manage stress and ease menstrual pain [4].

Dietary Modifications: Some dietary changes may help reduce dysmenorrhea symptoms. Increasing intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and omega-3 fatty acids can have anti-inflammatory effects and potentially alleviate menstrual pain. Conversely, reducing consumption of caffeine, alcohol and processed foods may also be beneficial.

Complementary Therapies: Alternative treatments such as acupuncture, herbal remedies and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) have shown promise in reducing dysmenorrhea symptoms for some women. However, further research is needed to establish their efficacy [5].


Dysmenorrhea is a common condition that can significantly impact a woman's well-being. Understanding its causes, symptoms and treatment options is crucial for effective management. While over-the-counter pain relievers and hormonal birth control methods are commonly used, lifestyle modifications such as heat therapy, exercise and dietary changes can also provide relief. It is important for women experiencing dysmenorrhea to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment plan for their individual needs and to rule out any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to their symptoms. With proper management, women can find relief and regain control over their lives, minimizing the impact of dysmenorrhea on their overall well-being.


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