Short Communication - Research and Reports in Pulmonology (2023) Volume 4, Issue 2
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema vs. Non-Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema: Key Differences.
Department of Internal Medicine, Autonomous research institution, Mahidol University, Thailand
- Corresponding Author:
- Panjapan Amornsupasiri
Department of Internal Medicine
Autonomous research institution
Mahidol University, Thailand
Received: 22-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AARRP-23-91255; Editor assigned: 24-Mar-2023, PreQC No. AARRP-23-91255(PQ); Reviewed: 07-Apr-2023, QC No. AARRP-23-91255; Revised: 13-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AARRP-23-91255(R); Published: 20-Apr-2023, DOI:10.35841/aarrp-4.2.139
Citation: Amornsupasiri P. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema vs. non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema: Key differences. Res Rep Pulmonol.2023;4(2):139
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema are two distinct types of pulmonary edema, which can cause severe respiratory distress in patients. Understanding the key differences between these two types of edema is crucial for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. This short communication reviews the pathophysiology, etiology, clinical presentation, and management of cardiogenic pulmonary edema and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, highlighting the key differences between these two conditions.
Cardiogenic pulmonary edema, Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, Respiratory distress, Patients.
Pulmonary edema is a condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the lungs, which can lead to respiratory failure and other severe complications. There are two main types of pulmonary edema: cardiogenic and noncardiogenic. Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (CPE) is caused by a malfunctioning heart, while Non-Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (NCPE) results from various factors that affect the permeability of the pulmonary capillaries . This short communication aims to highlight the key differences between these two types of pulmonary edema.
In CPE, the underlying cause is typically a cardiac dysfunction that results in increased hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries. This increased pressure leads to the extravasation of fluid into the alveoli, causing pulmonary edema. The most common cause of CPE is left ventricular failure, although other causes, such as acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and valvular heart disease, can also contribute to CPE . In contrast, NCPE occurs due to increased permeability of the pulmonary capillaries, which can be caused by various factors, such as infections, drugs, toxins, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and high-altitude pulmonary edema.
CPE is caused by various cardiac conditions that result in left ventricular dysfunction, including myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias . These conditions impair the ability of the heart to pump blood efficiently, leading to increased hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary capillaries. On the other hand, NCPE can be caused by several factors, including infections (pneumonia, sepsis), lung injury (trauma, aspiration), drugs (chemotherapy, heroin), toxins (smoke inhalation, chlorine gas), and systemic diseases (renal failure, liver failure).
The clinical presentation of CPE and NCPE can be similar, with both types of pulmonary edema presenting with dyspnoea, cough, and hypoxia. However, there are some distinct differences in the presentation of these two conditions. Patients with CPE typically have a history of cardiac disease, and their symptoms worsen with exertion or lying flat . They may also present with crackles in the lungs, jugular venous distension, and peripheral edema. In contrast, NCPE patients may have a history of recent lung injury or exposure to toxic substances, and their symptoms may develop rapidly and acutely. They may also present with diffuse crackles in the lungs, cyanosis, and respiratory distress .
The management of CPE and NCPE differs based on their underlying causes. In CPE, the primary goal is to improve cardiac function and decrease pulmonary congestion . This can be achieved through the administration of diuretics, oxygen therapy, and medications that improve cardiac contractility. In severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary. On the other hand, the treatment of NCPE depends on the underlying cause of the pulmonary edema. For example, if the cause is pneumonia, antibiotics are prescribed, and if the cause is druginduced, the offending medication is discontinued.
- Belice T, Yuce S, Kizilkaya B, et al. Noncardiac pulmonary edema induced by sitagliptin treatment. J Family Med Prim Care. 2014;3:456-7.
- Milne EN, Pistolesi M, Miniati M, et al. The radiologic distinction of cardiogenic and noncardiogenic edema. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1985;144:879-94.
- Clark AL, Cleland JG. Causes and treatment of oedema in patients with heart failure. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2013 Mar;10(3):156-70.
- Huppert LA, Matthay MA, Ware LB. Pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;40:31-9.
- Ware LB, Matthay MA. Clinical practice. Acute pulmonary edema. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2788-96.
- Scheel PJ, Liu M, Rabb H. Uremic lung: new insights into a forgotten condition. Kidney Int. 2008;74:849-51.