Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (629)348-3199

Review Article - Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Diagnosis and Therapy (2023) Volume 8, Issue 3

Antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases: Understanding mechanisms and implications for treatment strategies.

Zhang Ming*

Major of Medicine, Doctor Program of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Prima Indonesia, Medan, Indonesia

Corresponding Author:
Zhang Ming
Major of Medicine
Doctor Program of Medicine
Faculty of Medicine
Universitas Prima Indonesia
Medan, Indonesia
E mail:

Received: 05-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AAPDDT-23-107372; Editor assigned: 06-Jul-2023, PreQC No. AAPDDT-23-107372(PQ); Reviewed: 12-Jul-2023, QC No AAPDDT-17-107372; Published: 23-Jul-2023, DOI: 10.35841/2591-7846-8.3.148

Citation: Ming Z. Antimicrobial Resistance in Parasitic Diseases: Understanding Mechanisms and Implications for Treatment Strategies. J Parasit Dis Diagn Ther. 2023;8(3):148


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has emerged as a major global health concern, affecting various infectious diseases including bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. However, the significance of AMR in parasitic diseases, caused by protozoa and helminths, has often been overlooked. This research paper aims to shed light on the mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases and explore the implications for treatment strategies. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for the development of effective interventions to combat the rising threat of AMR in parasitic diseases.


Parasitic Diseases, Antimicrobial resistance, Health issues, Global Health Concerns.


Parasitic diseases have been a persistent threat to human health throughout history, affecting millions of people worldwide, particularly in resource-limited regions. Protozoa and helminths are the primary causative agents of these infections, and they encompass a diverse range of diseases, such as malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and soiltransmitted helminthiasis, among others. While significant progress has been made in controlling and treating many of these infections, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a formidable challenge to global health efforts [1, 2].

Antimicrobial resistance is a phenomenon where microorganisms, including parasites, develop the ability to withstand the effects of antimicrobial agents that were once effective in eliminating or controlling the infections they cause. This resistance can occur through various mechanisms, including genetic mutations, horizontal gene transfer, and adaptive responses to selective pressures induced by drug usage. Historically, AMR has been studied extensively in bacterial pathogens, leading to the development of guidelines and interventions to address the issue. However, the growing concern of AMR in parasitic diseases has often been overshadowed, even though it poses equally significant threats to public health [3].

The lack of comprehensive research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in AMR among parasitic diseases has hindered the development of effective treatment strategies. Additionally, the complex life cycles of many parasites, involving both human and vector hosts, contribute to the challenges of controlling and preventing AMR [4].


This research paper aims to achieve the following objectives:

To provide an overview of parasitic diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, their impact on global health, and the current status of their treatment and control. To explore and analyze the mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance in protozoan and helminthic parasites, with a focus on genetic factors, drug efflux pump systems, target modification, and biofilm formation. To understand the implications of antimicrobial resistance on the current treatment strategies for parasitic diseases and identify the challenges in managing resistant infections. To investigate diagnostic techniques and surveillance programs for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases, with an emphasis on the development of molecular and point-of-care testing methods.

To propose future perspectives and research priorities for combatting antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases, including the exploration of combination therapies, drug discovery and development, and alternative approaches such as vaccines and immunotherapies. By addressing these objectives, this research paper aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge and awareness of antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases. It seeks to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved and the implications for treatment, thereby facilitating the formulation of evidence-based strategies to combat the rise of AMR in parasitic infections. The ultimate goal is to provide valuable insights for healthcare professionals, policymakers, and researchers, leading to improved control and management of parasitic diseases in the face of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

Overview of parasitic diseases

Protozoan parasites are single-celled organisms belonging to the Kingdom Protista. They are responsible for causing a wide range of parasitic diseases in humans, with significant morbidity and mortality in affected populations. Some of the most notable protozoan parasites include:

Malaria, caused by Plasmodium species, is one of the most prevalent and deadly protozoan infections globally. It is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Malaria affects primarily tropical and subtropical regions, causing an estimated 200 million cases and over 400,000 deaths annually, with young children and pregnant women being the most vulnerable [5]. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania parasites, which are transmitted through the bites of infected sandflies. It presents in different clinical forms, including cutaneous, visceral, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is endemic in over 90 countries, with approximately 700,000 to 1 million new cases reported each year, and about 20,000 to 30,000 deaths annually [6]. Trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) and Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), is caused by Trypanosoma parasites. The African form is transmitted through the tsetse fly and affects sub-Saharan Africa, while the American form is transmitted through triatomine bugs and is prevalent in Latin America. Collectively, these diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, with approximately 50,000 cases reported annually [5, 7].

Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is a widespread zoonotic infection that can be transmitted through contaminated food, water, or exposure to infected animals. While often asymptomatic, it can be severe in immunocompromised individuals and cause congenital infections in pregnant women [8,9]. The global seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection is substantial, affecting up to onethird of the world's population.

Helminthic parasites are multicellular worms belonging to different taxonomic groups, including nematodes (roundworms), trematodes (flukes), and cestodes (tapeworms). They infect humans through various routes, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, contact with infected soil, or transmission through intermediate hosts. Some prominent helminthic parasites and their associated diseases include: group includes parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). STH infections are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation and affect over 1.5 billion people worldwide, causing chronic debilitation, malnutrition, and impaired physical and cognitive development, particularly in children [10, 11].

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is caused by blooddwelling trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. The infection is transmitted when larval forms released by freshwater snails penetrate the skin during contact with contaminated water. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and parts of South America and Asia, with approximately 240 million people infected and several hundred thousand deaths each year.

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis (river blindness) are caused by filarial nematodes, Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus, respectively. These infections are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes (lymphatic filariasis) or black flies (onchocerciasis). Filariasis affects around 120 million people, causing severe disfigurement, disability, and socioeconomic consequences.

Cestodes and Trematodes: Infections caused by cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) are less prevalent but can still have significant health impacts. Examples include taeniasis and cysticercosis (Taenia solium), echinococcosis (Echinococcus species), and liver fluke infections (Opisthorchis and Clonorchis species).

Impact on global health

Parasitic diseases, both protozoan and helminthic, have a profound impact on global health, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. These infections disproportionately affect vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and individuals with compromised immune systems. The consequences of parasitic infections extend beyond the direct health effects and encompass broader socioeconomic burdens. Key aspects of their impact on global health include:

High Disease Burden: Parasitic diseases collectively contribute to a substantial burden of disease, with millions of cases and hundreds of thousands of deaths reported annually. The chronic and debilitating nature of some infections can lead to long-term disability and reduced productivity.

Impaired Child Development: Infections occurring during early childhood can lead to impaired physical and cognitive development, affecting educational attainment and future economic productivity.

Poverty and Health Disparities: Parasitic infections are often concentrated in impoverished communities with limited access to healthcare, safe water, and proper sanitation facilities. The resulting health disparities exacerbate the cycle of poverty.

Zoonotic Potential: Several parasitic diseases have zoonotic potential, meaning they can be transmitted between animals and humans. This poses additional challenges for control and prevention, as animal reservoirs may complicate eradication efforts.

Emerging Antimicrobial Resistance: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in protozoan and helminthic parasites further compounds the challenges in treating and controlling these infections, potentially leading to treatment failures and increased mortality. Understanding the impact of parasitic diseases on global health is crucial for designing effective control and prevention strategies. Additionally, addressing antimicrobial resistance in these infections is of utmost importance to ensure the continued efficacy of available treatment options and to develop novel interventions to combat these diseases effectively.

Antimicrobial Resistance: A Global Health Challenge

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a natural evolutionary process in which microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, develop the ability to withstand the effects of antimicrobial agents. This resistance can render previously effective drugs ineffective, leading to treatment failures and persistent infections. AMR is a multifaceted global health challenge that affects both human and animal health, as well as agricultural practices.

Bacterial resistance: Bacterial resistance is the most wellknown and extensively studied form of AMR. It includes resistance to antibiotics, which are used to treat bacterial infections. Bacteria can develop resistance through various mechanisms, such as gene mutations, plasmid exchange, and horizontal gene transfer.

Viral resistance: Viral resistance refers to the ability of viruses to evade the actions of antiviral drugs, which are used to treat viral infections. Viruses, particularly RNA viruses like HIV and influenza, are known for their high mutation rates, facilitating the emergence of drug-resistant strains.

Fungal resistance: Fungal resistance involves the development of resistance to antifungal medications used to treat fungal infections. Fungi can develop resistance through genetic changes that affect the drug target, drug efflux pumps, or alterations in cell wall composition.

Parasitic resistance: Parasitic resistance, while less studied, is a growing concern. Parasites, such as protozoa and helminths, can also develop resistance to antiparasitic drugs. The mechanisms of resistance in parasites are diverse and may involve genetic mutations, efflux pumps, and changes in drug targets.

Factors contributing to AMR

The emergence and spread of AMR are influenced by a combination of factors, which include:

Overuse and misuse of antimicrobials: The inappropriate and excessive use of antimicrobial drugs in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture contribute significantly to the development of resistance. This includes the overprescribing of antibiotics, non-adherence to treatment regimens, and the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion in livestock [12, 13].

Inadequate infection control: Poor infection control practices in healthcare settings and the community can facilitate the transmission of drug-resistant microorganisms, leading to outbreaks and the dissemination of resistance genes.

Lack of new antimicrobials: The rate of discovery and development of new antimicrobial drugs has significantly declined in recent decades. As a result, there is a limited pipeline of novel drugs to combat emerging resistance, leaving healthcare providers with fewer options to treat infections.

Global travel and trade: International travel and trade enable the rapid spread of drug-resistant microorganisms across borders, making AMR a global issue that requires coordinated efforts.

Agriculture and aquaculture practices: The use of antimicrobials in agriculture and aquaculture for disease prevention and growth promotion in animals contributes to the selection and spread of resistant microorganisms.

Environmental contamination: The discharge of antimicrobial residues into the environment, such as through sewage and runoff from agricultural operations, can lead to the selection and proliferation of resistant bacteria in natural ecosystems.

AMR has become a critical global health challenge, affecting people of all ages and in diverse healthcare settings. Some notable trends and challenges include:

Resistant infections: Drug-resistant infections are becoming increasingly common, leading to higher healthcare costs, longer hospital stays, and increased mortality rates. Common infections such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections are becoming more challenging to treat due to resistance.

Resistant infections: Drug-resistant infections are becoming increasingly common, leading to higher healthcare costs, longer hospital stays, and increased mortality rates. Common infections such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections are becoming more challenging to treat due to resistance.

High mortality: AMR is estimated to cause over 700,000 deaths worldwide each year. If not addressed, this number is projected to rise significantly in the coming decades.

Multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant organisms: Some bacteria and other pathogens have developed resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial drugs, creating a serious threat to global health. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains are especially concerning, as they are virtually untreatable with available therapies.

Limited treatment options: In some cases, there are no effective treatment options available for drug-resistant infections, leaving patients vulnerable to life-threatening complications.

Global action: Recognizing the urgency of the issue, international organizations, governments, and healthcare institutions are actively working to combat AMR. Initiatives include improved surveillance, responsible antimicrobial stewardship, and support for research and development of new antimicrobial agents.

Addressing AMR requires a comprehensive and collaborative approach involving healthcare providers, policymakers, researchers, and the public. Implementing strategies to promote responsible antimicrobial use, enhancing infection prevention and control measures, and investing in research and development of new antimicrobial agents are critical steps to tackle this global health challenge [14, 15]. Malaria is a lifethreatening parasitic disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, with Plasmodium falciparum being the most deadly species. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in malaria parasites poses a significant challenge to global efforts to control and eliminate the disease. The main antimalarial drugs affected by resistance include chloroquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs).

Chloroquine Resistance: Chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum were first reported in the late 1950s and have since become widespread in many malaria-endemic regions. The resistance is primarily due to mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene and the multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene, leading to reduced drug accumulation within the parasite's food vacuole. Antifolate Resistance: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance is linked to mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes of Plasmodium parasites, affecting the drug's target enzymes and reducing its effectiveness. Artemisinin Resistance: Artemisinin resistance, first detected in Southeast Asia, has raised serious concerns about the efficacy of ACTs, the most effective antimalarial treatment currently available. Resistance to artemisinins is associated with mutations in the P. falciparum kelch13 (pfk13) gene, which leads to delayed parasite clearance and treatment failures.

The spread of drug-resistant malaria parasites has complicated treatment regimens and threatens the progress made in malaria control and elimination. In regions with widespread resistance to chloroquine and other drugs, ACTs remain the recommended first-line treatment. However, the emergence of artemisininresistant strains emphasizes the urgency of monitoring and containing the spread of resistance. Efforts are underway to develop new antimalarial drugs and combination therapies to overcome resistance and maintain effective treatment options. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. It manifests in different clinical forms, including cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). The treatment of leishmaniasis primarily relies on antimonials, amphotericin B, and miltefosine.

Antimonial Resistance: Antimonials, such as sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate, have been the mainstay of leishmaniasis treatment for decades. However, resistance to these drugs has been reported in some regions, including parts of India and the Mediterranean basin. The mechanisms of antimonial resistance are not fully understood but may involve reduced drug uptake, altered drug metabolism, and enhanced efflux of the drug from the parasite. The emergence of antimonial resistance in leishmaniasis is concerning, as these drugs have long been the first-line treatment. Amphotericin B and miltefosine are currently used as alternative treatments for antimonial-resistant cases. However, amphotericin B has potential toxicity concerns, and miltefosine resistance has also been reported. There is a need for continued surveillance of drug resistance in Leishmania parasites and the development of new treatment options to combat resistance effectively.

Trypanosomiasis includes African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), caused by Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. Both diseases are significant public health problems in certain regions, with limited treatment options. Trypanosoma brucei: The parasites responsible for African trypanosomiasis have developed resistance to various drugs, including pentamidine, suramin, and melarsoprol. Resistance mechanisms may involve reduced drug uptake or increased efflux, as well as changes in the target enzymes. Trypanosoma cruzi: Resistance to the main drug used for Chagas disease, benznidazole, has been observed in experimental studies. The mechanisms of resistance in T. cruzi are not yet fully understood and require further investigation.

The limited arsenal of drugs available for treating trypanosomiasis, coupled with the emerging resistance, poses challenges for disease management. Developing new drugs and combination therapies, as well as improving surveillance of drug resistance, are essential to ensure effective treatment and control of these neglected tropical diseases. Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Infections in immunocompetent individuals are usually asymptomatic or mild, but in immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women, toxoplasmosis can lead to severe complications. The main drug used for treatment is pyrimethamine combined with sulfadiazine or clindamycin.

Antimicrobial resistance in Toxoplasma gondii is less commonly reported compared to bacterial and some other parasitic infections. However, resistance to pyrimethamine has been documented and is associated with mutations in the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) gene of the parasite.

The emergence of pyrimethamine resistance in Toxoplasma gondii is a concern for the management of toxoplasmosis in vulnerable populations. Alternative treatment options, such as atovaquone or azithromycin, may be considered for cases of pyrimethamine resistance, but more research is needed to understand the extent and implications of resistance in clinical settings.

Addressing antimicrobial resistance in protozoan parasites requires a comprehensive approach that includes continued surveillance, research into resistance mechanisms, development of new treatment options, and implementation of effective control measures to limit the spread of resistant strains.

Antimicrobial resistance in helminthic parasites

Helminthic parasites, including soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomes, filarial nematodes, cestodes, and trematodes, are responsible for a range of debilitating and neglected tropical diseases. While antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in helminths is less studied compared to bacteria and some protozoa, emerging resistance in these parasites is a growing concern. The main drugs affected by resistance in helminths include anthelmintics, which are used to treat various helminthic infections.

Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are a group of intestinal nematodes that primarily infect humans through contaminated soil. The main STH species include Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). These parasites cause significant morbidity, particularly in children, and impair physical and cognitive development.

Antihelminthic resistance mechanisms are not fully understood, but they likely involve genetic changes in the parasite's target sites, reduced drug uptake, or increased drug efflux. Resistance to anthelmintics, particularly to benzimidazoles and pyrantel pamoate, has been reported in some areas. The spread of drugresistant STH could undermine efforts to control and eliminate these infections. Combination therapies and the development of new anthelmintic drugs are essential to overcome resistance and ensure effective treatment. Schistosomiasis is a waterborne parasitic disease caused by blood-dwelling trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. The infection occurs when larvae released by freshwater snails penetrate the skin during contact with contaminated water. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in sub- Saharan Africa, the Middle East, parts of South America, and Asia. Antihelminthic resistance in schistosomes is not as welldocumented as in other parasites. Some studies have reported reduced susceptibility to praziquantel, the main drug used to treat schistosomiasis, in laboratory settings. However, the mechanisms of resistance remain poorly understood.

Praziquantel remains the cornerstone of schistosomiasis treatment. The potential for resistance highlights the need for continued surveillance and research to understand the extent of resistance and develop alternative treatments. Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis (river blindness) are caused by filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi (lymphatic filariasis), and Onchocerca volvulus (onchocerciasis). These infections are transmitted by mosquitoes (lymphatic filariasis) or black flies (onchocerciasis).

Antihelminthic resistance in filariasis is not widely reported. However, some studies suggest the potential for reduced susceptibility to drugs such as diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin. Ivermectin is commonly used for the treatment of onchocerciasis, and diethylcarbamazine, in combination with albendazole or ivermectin, is used to treat lymphatic filariasis. Continued monitoring and research are necessary to ensure that resistance does not jeopardize filariasis elimination efforts.

Cestodes (tapeworms) and trematodes (flukes) are helminths that cause a variety of infections, including taeniasis and cysticercosis (Taenia solium), echinococcosis (Echinococcus species), and liver fluke infections (Opisthorchis and Clonorchis species). The mechanisms of antihelminthic resistance in cestodes and trematodes are not as extensively studied as in other helminths. Resistance mechanisms may involve genetic changes affecting drug targets, reduced drug uptake, or efflux pumps. Treatment options for cestode and trematode infections are limited, and emerging resistance could further complicate disease management. More research is needed to understand the extent and implications of resistance in these parasites.

Addressing antimicrobial resistance in helminthic parasites requires a comprehensive approach, including increased surveillance, research into resistance mechanisms, and the development of new drugs and combination therapies. Moreover, integrated control and prevention strategies are crucial to minimize the emergence and spread of resistance and to maintain the effectiveness of available treatments against these neglected tropical diseases.

Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases

Genetic factors play a significant role in the development of antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases. In protozoan and helminthic parasites, resistance can arise due to spontaneous mutations or through the acquisition of resistance-conferring genes from other organisms, a process known as horizontal gene transfer. Key mechanisms involving genetic factors include: Point Mutations: Random mutations in the parasite's genetic material can lead to changes in the structure or function of target proteins, making them less susceptible to the action of antimicrobial drugs.

Amplification of Genes: Parasites may undergo gene amplification, resulting in an increased number of copies of specific genes. This phenomenon can lead to higher production of drug target proteins, making it harder for the drug to effectively inhibit the target. Gene Rearrangements: Rearrangement of genetic elements, such as gene deletions or insertions, can alter the expression or function of key proteins involved in drug action. Horizontal Gene Transfer: Parasites can acquire resistance genes from other microorganisms, including bacteria or other parasites, through horizontal gene transfer. This process can confer resistance to previously susceptible parasites, leading to the spread of resistance in the population.

Drug efflux pumps are cellular transporters that actively pump drugs out of the parasite's cell, reducing intracellular drug concentrations and limiting the drug's effectiveness. These efflux pumps, often overexpressed in resistant parasites, are involved in the expulsion of a wide range of drugs, including antibiotics and antiparasitic agents. They play a significant role in drug resistance in various parasitic diseases. Some key efflux pump families involved in AMR are the ATPbinding cassette (ABC) transporters and the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters. Antimicrobial drugs exert their action by interacting with specific target proteins in the parasite. Resistance can arise when mutations occur in these target proteins, altering their structure and reducing the drug's binding affinity. This modification prevents the drug from effectively inhibiting the target, leading to reduced drug efficacy. For example, in malaria, mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch13 (pfk13) gene result in changes to the parasite's proteasome, leading to delayed parasite clearance and resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs).

Biofilms are structured communities of microorganisms encased in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Some parasites, particularly protozoa, have been shown to form biofilms. Biofilm formation provides protection against the host's immune system and antimicrobial agents, making the parasites less susceptible to drug action. The presence of biofilms may contribute to persistent infections and recalcitrant drug responses, as the biofilm matrix hinders drug penetration and reduces drug availability at the site of infection.

Understanding the various mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases is essential for the development of effective treatment strategies. Combating AMR requires a multifaceted approach, including the development of new drugs with novel targets, combination therapies to overcome resistance, and the implementation of preventive measures to limit the emergence and spread of resistance. Additionally, increased surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns are crucial for guiding treatment decisions and preserving the efficacy of available antimicrobial agents against parasitic infections.

Implications for treatment strategies

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases poses significant challenges to current treatment strategies. Resistance can lead to treatment failures, prolonged illness, and increased healthcare costs. Moreover, limited treatment options for some infections, coupled with the potential for resistance to spread, may hinder disease control and elimination efforts. Addressing these challenges requires a multifaceted approach to ensure effective treatment and control of parasitic diseases. Combination therapies, involving the use of two or more drugs with different modes of action, have shown promise in combating antimicrobial resistance. By targeting multiple pathways, combination therapies can reduce the likelihood of resistance emergence and increase treatment efficacy. In parasitic diseases, combination therapies have been successful in malaria (e.g., artemisinin-based combination therapies) and may prove valuable in other infections as well.

Investing in drug discovery and development is crucial to overcome antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases. Identifying new drug targets and developing novel compounds with different mechanisms of action can provide effective alternatives to existing treatments. Additionally, repurposing existing drugs and exploring natural products may offer new treatment options for drug-resistant infections.

Alternative approaches (Vaccines, Immunotherapies)

Developing vaccines against parasitic diseases can be a game-changer, as they can prevent infections and reduce the reliance on antimicrobial treatments. Vaccines have been successful in controlling some helminthic infections, such as schistosomiasis and filariasis, and efforts should continue to improve and expand vaccine development for other parasitic diseases. Furthermore, immunotherapies that enhance the host's immune response against the parasites are being explored as potential adjunctive treatments to complement drug-based therapies.

Diagnostic techniques and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance

Molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and DNA sequencing, have revolutionized the detection and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases. These methods enable rapid and specific identification of resistance markers in parasites, aiding in early detection and guiding treatment decisions. The development and implementation of point-of-care testing for antimicrobial resistance can significantly impact treatment strategies. Rapid diagnostic tests that can be used at the point of care can guide healthcare providers in selecting the most appropriate treatment based on resistance profiles, thereby reducing the inappropriate use of drugs and limiting the further spread of resistance.

Establishing robust surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases is vital to monitor the prevalence and spread of resistance. Surveillance data can inform treatment guidelines, identify emerging resistance hotspots, and guide public health interventions to mitigate the impact of resistance.

Continued research is essential to better understand the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases. This includes studying the genetic factors, efflux pump systems, target modifications, and biofilm formation in various parasites. Additionally, exploring alternative treatment approaches, such as combination therapies and immunotherapies, should be a research priority to combat resistance effectively. Strengthening healthcare systems in endemic regions is crucial for the effective management of parasitic diseases and their resistance. This involves improving access to healthcare, enhancing diagnostic capabilities, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and providing continuous training for healthcare professionals.

Addressing antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases requires international collaboration and coordinated efforts. Governments, policymakers, international organizations, and the private sector must work together to develop and implement policies that promote responsible antimicrobial use, facilitate research and development of new drugs and vaccines, and support surveillance programs.


Antimicrobial resistance in parasitic diseases presents a complex and pressing global health challenge. The emergence of resistance in protozoan and helminthic parasites threatens the efficacy of existing treatments, and the limited pipeline of new drugs further exacerbates the issue. A comprehensive approach that includes combination therapies, drug discovery, and development, as well as alternative approaches like vaccines and immunotherapies, is essential to combat resistance effectively. Alongside this, investing in diagnostic techniques and surveillance programs will enable early detection of resistance and guide evidence-based treatment decisions. Global collaboration and policy interventions are crucial to address this challenge and safeguard the gains made in the control and elimination of parasitic diseases. Only through collaborative efforts can we ensure that effective treatment options remain available and accessible, reducing the burden of parasitic diseases on global health.


  1. Camara IDB, Amora SSA, Queiroz PGG, et al. Influence of parasitic diseases on subsistence production of small family farming producer. Rev Gest E Secr. 2023;14(6):8752–65.
  2. Bailly C. Contribution of the TIM-3/Gal-9 immune checkpoint to tropical parasitic diseases. ACTA Trop. 2023;238.
  3. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  4. Das D, Rehman O, Bhattacharjee K, et al. Parasitic Eye Diseases: Nuances in Rapid Identification and Advanced Microscopy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2023;19:1-4.
  5. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  6. Shapiro M, Renly S, Maiorano A, et al. Digital Health at Enterprise Scale: Evaluation Framework for Selecting Patient-Facing Software in a Digital-First Health System. JMIR Form Res. 2023;7.
  7. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  8. Tanko BL, Essah EA, Elijah O, et al. Bibliometric analysis, scientometrics and metasynthesis of Internet of Things (IoT) in smart buildings. BUILT Environ Proj ASSET Manag. 2023;
  9. Google Scholar

  10. Lee AVY. Supporting students? generation of feedback in large-scale online course with artificial intelligence-enabled evaluation. Stud Educ Eval. 2023;77.
  11. Google Scholar

  12. Fernandez L, Gandy EK, Lawrence HY, et al. Developing technical writing programs for fire safety professionals: a model for sustainable industry-university partnerships. J Work Learn. 2023;35(2):164–75.
  13. Google Scholar

  14. Jamil M, Aleem MT, Shaukat A, et al. Medicinal Plants as an Alternative to Control Poultry Parasitic Diseases. LIFE-BASEL. 2022;12(3).
  15. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  16. Green A. Calls to restart testing for parasitic disease at US CDC. Lancet. 2022;399(10338):1855-1855 WE-Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED).
  17. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  18. Okpeku M, Adeleke MA, Chen JH. Genetics of Apicomplexans and Apicomplexan-Related Parasitic Diseases. Front Genet. 2022;13.
  19. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  20. Parasitic diseases causing deaths and illthrift in Scottish cattle. Vet Rec. 2022;191(4):152-155 WE-Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED).
  21. Indexed at, Cross Ref

  22. Al-Tawfiq JA, Kim H, Memish ZA. Parasitic lung diseases. Eur Respir Rev. 2022;31(166).
  23. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  24. Whitten MMA. Parasitic diseases of insects. Rowley AF, Coates CJ, Whitten MMA, editors. INVERTEBRATE PATHOLOGY. Swansea Univ, Med Sch, Swansea, W Glam, Wales; 2022. 332–67.
  25. Buchmann K. Control of parasitic diseases in aquaculture. Parasitology. 2022;149(14):1985–97.
  26. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  27. Morales-Montor J, McKay DM, Terrazas LI. Advances in the Immunobiology of Parasitic Diseases. Pathogens. 2022;11(7).
  28. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App