Opinion Article - Journal of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics (2023) Volume 8, Issue 3
Advances in targeted therapy for specific types of cancer
Lina John *
- *Corresponding Author:
- Lina John
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
Received: 10-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. JMOT-23-100253; Editor assigned: 11-Apr-2023, PreQC No. JMOT-23-100253 (PQ); Reviewed: 11-Apr-2023, QC No. JMOT-23-100253; Revised: 29-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. JMOT-23-100253 (R); Published: 09-May-2023, DOI:10.35841/ jmot-8.3.141
Citation: John L. Advances in targeted therapy for specific types of cancer. J Med Oncl Ther. 2023;8(3):141
Traditional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, often lack specificity and can result in significant side effects. Targeted therapy offers a more precise approach by interfering with specific molecular pathways involved in cancer growth and progression. This article examines recent breakthroughs in targeted therapies for several types of cancer and their impact on patient management. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors: Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of next-generation EGFR inhibitors, such as osimertinib, in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC, overcoming resistance mechanisms and improving survival rates. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) inhibitors: Second- and third generation ALK inhibitors, such as alectinib and lorlatinib, have shown promising results in ALK-positive NSCLC, offering improved response rates and progression-free survival . Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies: Novel agents like ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and neratinib have demonstrated efficacy in HER2-positive breast cancer, providing alternative treatment options and improving outcomes.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors: CDK 4/6 inhibitors, such as palbociclib and ribociclib, have shown significant clinical benefit in hormone receptor-positive, HER2- negative advanced breast cancer, enhancing progression-free survival and overall response rates . Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors: Anti-EGFR antibodies, including cetuximab and panitumumab, have demonstrated efficacy in RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer, leading to improved overall survival and disease control. BRAF inhibitors: For patients with BRAF V600E-mutated metastatic colorectal cancer, BRAF inhibitors, such as vemurafenib, in combination with MEK inhibitors, haveshown promising results, overcoming resistance mechanisms and prolonging survival.Immune checkpoint inhibitors: Monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD 1) and its ligand (PD-L1), such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab, have revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma, leading to durable responses and improved survival rates [3,].
BRAF and MEK inhibitors: In patients with BRAF V600- mutated melanoma, combination therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors, such as dabrafenib and trametinib, has shown superior outcomes compared to monotherapy, delaying disease progression and improving overall survival. Targeted therapy has significantly transformed the landscape of cancer treatment, offering improved efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to traditional approaches. The recent advances highlighted in this article demonstrate the remarkable progress in targeted therapies for specific types of cancer, underscoring the importance of ongoing research and clinical trials to further refine and expand treatment options. These advances bring hope for more effective and personalized cancer care, ultimately leading to better outcomes for patients .
Despite the success of targeted therapies, the development of resistance remains a significant challenge. Tumor cells can acquire genetic alterations or activate alternative signaling pathways to bypass the effects of targeted agents. Ongoing research aims to elucidate these resistance mechanisms and develop strategies to overcome or prevent resistance, such as combination therapies or drug sequencing. Liquid biopsies, including circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs), have emerged as non-invasive tools for monitoring treatment response and detecting genetic alterations in real-time. These liquid biopsies provide valuable information on tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution, and the emergence of resistance mutations, aiding treatment decision-making and allowing for dynamic treatment adjustments .
Targeted therapies are often guided by specific biomarkers that predict treatment response. Molecular profiling of tumors, including genomic alterations, protein expression, and immune markers, plays a crucial role in identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from targeted therapy. The integration of precision medicine approaches and biomarker driven strategies is advancing personalized cancer care.
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