Ophthalmology Case Reports

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Rapid Communication - Ophthalmology Case Reports (2023) Volume 7, Issue 2

Advances in diabetic retinopathy screening techniques and diagnostic tools.

Bruno Stefaniotou*

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

*Corresponding Author:
Bruno Stefaniotou
Department of Biomedical Informatics
Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
E-mail: stefbru@tmu.edu.tw

Received: 26-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. OER-23-105871; Editor assigned: 28-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. OER-23-105871(PQ); Reviewed: 11-Apr-2023, QC No. OER-23-105871; Revised: 14-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. OER-23-105871(R); Published: 21-Apr-2023, DOI: 10.35841/2591-7846-7.2.149

Citation: Stefaniotou B. Advances in diabetic retinopathy screening techniques and diagnostic tools. Am J Ophthalmol. 2023;7(2):149

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Examination of information from forty years of clinical exploration shows that at present suggested medicines are extensively additional viable in keeping visual impairment from Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (PDR) than has been recently valued. Truth be told, cautious development, convenient photocoagulation and vitrectomy when important strikingly diminish the gamble of visual impairment for patients with PDR. Diabetic retinopathy includes anatomic changes in retinal vessels and neuroglia. The pathogenetic system liable for retinopathy is defectively perceived, yet a large part of the component is evidently imitated by trial diabetes in creatures and by the constant rise of blood galactose in non-diabetic creatures. The proof that retinopathy is an outcome of unreasonable blood sugars and their sequelae is reliable with a shown restraint of retinopathy by severe glycemic control in diabetic canines [1].

Diabetic Macular Edema (DME), which can happen at any phase of DR, is portrayed by expanded vascular porousness and the affidavit of hard exudates at the focal retina. Diabetic macular edema is presently the chief reason for vision misfortune in people with diabetes. Essential mediations, for example, concentrated glycemic and pulse control, can lessen the frequency of DR, while optional intercessions, like laser photocoagulation, may forestall further movement of DR and vision misfortune. Irritation is a vague reaction to injury that incorporates different practical and sub-atomic middle people, including enrollment as well as initiation of leukocytes. Aggravation ordinarily usefully affects an intense premise however can make unwanted impacts if endured persistently [2].

Fiery proteins depicted in this section have been related to diabetes-actuated microvascular sickness in creature models and restraint of these proteins represses improvement of the retinal microvascular illness. Diabetic retinopathy is portrayed by continuously moderate changes in the retinal microvasculature, prompting areas of retinal nonperfusion, expanded vasopermeability and because of retinal nonperfusion, pathologic intraocular expansion of retinal vessels. Be that as it may, components fundamental to the ever-evolving adjustments in retinal microvessels, which go before and animate neovascularization, are less notable [3].

Microvascular injuries, for example, microaneurysms, blood boundary brokenness and slender dropout, are key elements of diabetic retinopathy. 3,4 Notwithstanding, it ought to be valued that the sole reason for retinal dissemination is to help the metabolic requests of the inward retinal neurons and glia and that these phones are likewise harmed obviously during diabetes. Such neuronal and glial brokenness happens as one with bloodstream anomalies and frequently before the presence of clear microvascular harm. The arrangement of cutting-edge glycation final results (AGEs) and the enactment of receptors for a long time [4].

Hyperglycemia increments superoxide creation (by means of the mitochondrial electron transport chain) which thusly starts speeding up AGE development and furthermore compounds interrelated pathogenic reactions. This speculation has been supported in the field of retinopathy, in which three biochemical irregularities including AGE arrangement, motion through the hexosamine pathway and diacylglycerol-interceded enactment of PKC-β can be lessened with benfotiamine. This vitamin B1 thiamine subordinate animates transketolase movement and shunts the overabundance of triose phosphates toward the reductive pentose phosphate pathway, which is impeded in high-glucose diabetes [5].


Evaluating for retinopathy in patients with diabetes and resulting photocoagulation treatment for people who have high-risk macular edema or proliferative retinopathy, is plainly valuable. It is guessed that before very long, new pharmacological medicines in view of a comprehension of the causative systems of diabetic retinopathy will be created and address the requirement for both vascular and neuroprotection.


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