Short Communication - Journal of Clinical Respiratory Medicine (2021) Volume 5, Issue 4
A small note on attack of myocardial infraction
Department of Pathology, INSERM University, Paris, France
- Corresponding Author:
- Mohammadkarim Johari
Department of Pathology INSERM University Paris France
E-mail: [email protected]
Accepted date: 03 September, 2021
Citation: Freddie Fletcher. A small note on attack of myocardial infraction. J Clin Resp Med 2021;5(4):1-2.
A Myocardial Infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, occurs when blood supply to a region of the heart is restricted or stopped, resulting in damage to the heart muscle. Chest pain or discomfort is the most common symptom, which might spread to the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. It usually happens in the middle or left side of the chest and lasts for several minutes. It's probable that the discomfort will feel like heartburn at times. Shortness of breath, nausea, dizziness, faintness, a cold sweat, or tiredness is some of the other symptoms [1-5].
Atypical symptoms can affect about 30% of people. Women are more likely to present with neck pain, arm pain, or exhaustion rather than chest pain. About 5% of those over the age of 75 have developed a MI with little or no prior symptoms. Heart failure, irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest may also occur with a MI.
The most of MIs are induced by coronary artery disease. High blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol are all risk factors. The underlying mechanism of a MI is usually a full blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque. Coronary artery spasms, which can be triggered by cocaine, significant mental stress (often known as particularly in patients syndrome or broken heart syndrome), and acute cold, among other causes, are less common causes of MIs.
Electrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests, and coronary angiography are among the diagnostic tests that really can assist in diagnosis. If ST elevation is present, an ECG, which is a recording of the heart's electrical activity, may confirm a ST Elevation MI (STEMI). Troponin and, less commonly, creatine kinase MB are common blood tests.
The treatment of a cardiac arrest is moment. For a suspected MI, aspirin is a recommended initial treatment. Although nitroglycerin or opioids can help with chest pain, they do not even enhance overall results. Supplemental oxygen is suggested for people who have low oxygen levels or have breathing difficulties.
Treatments for STEMI include Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), which includes forcing the arteries open and possibly endovascular them, or thrombolysis, which involves removing the blockage with medicines. People with a Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) are frequently treated with the blood thinner heparin, with PCI used in high-risk patients. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG) may be advised instead of angioplasty in persons with numerous coronary artery blockages and diabetes. Following a MI, lifestyle changes are usually recommended, as well as long-term treatment with aspirin, beta blockers, and statins.
In 2015, there were about 15.9 million myocardial infarctions worldwide. An ST Elevation MI impacted over 3 million people, while an NSTEMI affected over 4 million. STEMIs strike men almost twice as frequently as they strike women. In the United States, about one million people are diagnosed with MI each year. The probability of death in persons who have had a STEMI is roughly 10% in the developed world. Between 1990 and 2010, the global rate of MI declined for each age group. An MI was one of the top five most expensive ailments during inpatient hospitalizations in the United States in 2011, with 612,000 hospital stays spending around 11.5 billion.
Myocardial Infarction (MI) is the loss of heart muscle tissue (myocardium) caused to ischemia, or a lack of oxygen delivery to myocardial tissue. It's a form of acute coronary syndrome that explains a change in symptoms connected to blood flow to the heart that occurs suddenly or over a short time. A myocardial infarction, unlike the other type of acute coronary syndrome, unstable angina, happens when there is cell death, which may be measured by a blood test for biomarkers (the cardiac protein troponin). Based on the results of an ECG, a MI can be classified as a ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) or a Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI).
The expression "heart attack" is commonly used to refer to myocardial infarction without qualification. An MI is not the same as, but can lead to, cardiac arrest, in which the heart does not contract at all or beats so poorly that all important organs stop functioning, potentially resulting in death. It's also separate from heart failure, which occurs when the heart's pumping function is impaired. An MI, on the other side, can result in heart failure.
One of the most common symptoms of acute myocardial infarction is chest pain, which is commonly described as a tightness, pressure, or squeezing sensation. The left arm is the most common site of pain, but it can also affect the lower jaw, neck, right arm, back, and upper abdomen. The discomfort radiating to the right arm and shoulder is the most symptomatic of an acute MI, with the greatest likelihood ratio. Similarly, chest pain similar that of a past heart attack can be a sign of a heart attack. MI headache is usually diffuse, does not alter with position, and lasts longer than 20 minutes.
Pressure, tightness, knifelike, tearing, and searing sensations are all possible descriptions (all these are also manifested during other diseases). It could seem like unexplained anxiety, or it could be completely painless. Levine's sign, which involves clenching one or both fists over the sternum to localized chest pain, was once thought to be a good predictor of cardiac chest pain, but a prospective observational study found it to have a low positive predictive value.
- Chen TC, Zeng A, Sun W, et al. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography and glaucoma. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2008;48:29–45.
- Hirasawa H, Tomidokoro A, Araie M et al. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness determined by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in ophthalmologically normal eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1420–6
- Leung CK, Cheung CY, Weinreb RN et al. Retinal nerve fibre layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a variability and diagnostic performance study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1257–63.
- Jeanjean L, Castelnovo G, Carlander B, et al. Retinal atrophy using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in 15 patients with multiple sclerosis and comparison with healthy subjects. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2008;164:927-34.
- Lamirel C, Newman N, Biousse V. The use of optical coherence tomography in neurology. Rev Neurol Dis. 2009;6:E105-20.