Perspective - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2023) Volume 6, Issue 2
A short study on immune based treatments and the development of tumour vaccines
Department of Clinical Immunology, Transylvania University, Brasov, Romania
- Corresponding Author:
- Achega Alona
Department of Clinical Immunology,
Received: 06-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-82529; Editor assigned: 08-Dec-2022, AACIR-23-82529 (PQ); Reviewed: 22-Dec-2022, QC No. AACIR-23-82529; Revised: 08-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-82529 (R); Published: 16-Feb-2023, DOI:10.35841/aacir.6.2.138
Citation: Alona A. A short study on immune based treatments and the development of tumour vaccines. J Clin Immunol Res. 2023;6(2):1-2.
Over the past few decades, tumour immunotherapy research has advanced significantly, with many trials now being evaluated in clinical settings. A promising treatment approach for the immunotherapy of solid tumours is the cancer vaccination. Tumor antigens from cancer vaccines, which may be given as entire cells, peptides, nucleic acids, etc. induce anti-tumor immunity. Ideal cancer vaccines would stimulate both humoral and cellular immunity while overcoming tumor
Cancer vaccine, Immunotherapy, Tumour, Immunity, Therapeutic
The development of vaccinations has opened up new avenues for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Edward Jenner discovered that the cowpox vaccine protects against smallpox infection in 1796, which led to the development of the first vaccine. As the vaccine evolved, more ailments, including malignancies, were eventually treated with it. In 1980, the first cancer vaccination based on tumour cells and lysates was created. Scientists treated colorectal cancer with autologous tumour cells. Melanoma associated antigen 1, the first human tumour antigen discovered in the early 1990’s, opened a new chapter on the use of tumour antigens in cancer vaccines .
Cancer vaccines differ from conventional vaccines due to the treatment goals, which include the goal of killing tumour cells through tumour antigen specific cellular immune responses. To date, only two preventive vaccinations with FDA approval have been used to prevent virally induced cancer. Additionally, tumour antigens are endogenous with limited immunogenicity, unlike conventional vaccinations that use antigens from exogenous infections. Effective immune responses to tumour antigens are sometimes challenging to elicit. Additionally, conventional vaccinations produce humoral immunity. However, cellular immunity mediated by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells is essential for the elimination of malignant cells in cancer vaccines .
Over the past ten years, cancer vaccines have undergone extensive research. The discovery of many tumour neoantigens is due to the accessibility and affordability of high throughput sequencing technology. Research on cancer vaccines has been significantly advanced by the in depth study of immunological mechanisms and numerous innovative vaccine platforms.
The immune activation brought on by tumour antigens depends heavily on Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs). The most crucial ones are DCs because they serve as a vital link between innate and adaptive immunity. DCs are primary antigen presenters that have the capacity to ingest antigens and present them cross presently on MHC I molecules. Immature DCs are highly adept at recognising and engulfing antigens via phagocytosis and micropinocytosis. In the Tumour Microenvironment (TME), toll like receptor ligands may temporarily promote antigen specific micropinocytosis, which may improve the capacity of DCs to capture antigens with toll like receptor ligand adjuvants. DCs eventually lose their capacity to absorb antigens after antigen absorption because MHC I, MHC II and co-stimulatory molecules on their surface are increased. The DCs that are antigen loaded move .
Tumor cell vaccines and immune cell vaccines are two categories of cell based vaccines. A reasonably straightforward and direct method of treating tumours with immunotherapy is the entire tumour cell vaccination. The entire tumor associated antigen, including the CTL and CD4+ helper T cell epitopes, is present in the tumour cell vaccination. Based on cells’ functions in the immune system, the immune cell vaccine. The body’s most potent professional APCs are DCs. DCs are typically required to deliver cancer antigens in immunisation. Therefore, importing tumor associated antigens into DCs to enable them to serve as antigen presenters and activate T cells is an efficient method .
Immunology has already produced significant advances in the treatment of a number of diseases, from the cervical cancer preventive vaccination to the first medication ever demonstrated to lengthen patients’ lives with metastatic melanoma. With the knowledge that cancers currently induce immunosuppression through cellular processes, protecting tumours from immune system detection or rejection, immunotherapy is a significant class of medications used in the treatment of cancer. Personalized medicine is most likely to eventually result from immunotherapy, either alone or in combination with target therapy. For many treatments, that will radically alter overall survival and progression free survival .
Patients with tumours that have advanced and failed conventional treatments make up the majority of the therapeutic trial subjects for cancer vaccines. Theoretically, patients with a full immune system, a smaller tumour load and a higher risk of recurrence are better candidates for cancer vaccine therapy. Therefore, the function of the patient's immune system and tumour load should be thoroughly taken into account in future clinical studies of cancer vaccines. In conclusion, cancer vaccines are promising immune therapeutics for establishing immune surveillance and boosting the immune system’s capacity to eradicate tumours. Before cancer vaccines become a powerful immunotherapy tool, however, significant work needs to be done on finding neoantigens, creating combination therapies and optimising vaccination platforms.
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