Editorial - Journal of Clinical Respiratory Medicine (2021) Volume 5, Issue 5
A short note on lung inflammatory disease.
Department of Respiratory and Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, USA
- Corresponding Author:
- Frances Hodges
Department of Respiratory and Medicine
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
Email: [email protected]
Accepted date: 08 October, 2021
Citation: Hodges F. A short note on lung inflammatory disease.2021;5(5):1
Pneumonia is a lung inflammatory disorder that mainly affects the alveoli, or small air sacs. Chronic cough, whether productive or dry, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing are all common symptoms. The condition's severity is vary.
Infection with viruses or bacteria, as well as other microbes, is the most prevalent cause of pneumonia. It can be difficult to establish which infection is to cause. Symptoms and a physical examination are sometimes used to make a diagnosis. The condition can be classed based on where it was acquired, such as in the community or in a hospital, or as a healthcareassociated pneumonia disease.
Cystic fibrosis, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), sickle cell disease, asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough (including after a stroke).There are vaccines available to prevent certain types of pneumonia (such as those caused by the Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria, which is linked to influenza) or pneumonia linked to COVID-19. Hand washing to avoid infection, not smoking, and social distancing are some other methods of prevention.
The treatment will be determined by the underlying reason. Antibiotics are used to treat pneumonia caused by the bacteria. If the pneumonia is severe, the patients admitted to hospital. If oxygen levels are low, oxygen therapy may be utilized.
Pneumonia affects approximately 450 million people (7 percent of the world's population) each year, leading in roughly 4 million deaths. Survival rates have risen significantly since the advent of antibiotics and vaccinations in the twentieth century. Considering this, pneumonia is still a top cause of death in underdeveloped countries, particularly among the aged, children, and chronically unwell. Pneumonia is known as "the old man's friend" because it often shortens the length of suffering for those that are near death. A productive cough, fever with shaking chills, shortness of breath, severe or stabbing chest pains during deep breaths, and an increased rate of breathing are all common side effects of infectious pneumonia. Confusion is one of the most common symptoms among the elderly.
Fever, cough, and fast or difficult breathing are common signs and symptoms in children under the age of five. Fever isn't very particular, as it can occur with a variety of other conditions, and it can be absent in persons suffering from severe illness, malnutrition, or the elderly. In addition, infants under the age of two months are frequently absent of a cough. Blue-tinged skin, a refuse to drink, convulsions, stomach pain, extremes in temperature, or a decreased level of consciousness were some of the most severe signs and symptoms in infants.
Pneumonia caused by bacteria and pneumonia viral diseases frequently have similar symptoms. Some causes are linked to well-known but non-specific clinical features. Abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and confusion are all symptoms of Legionella pneumonia. Sputum that is rusty in colour is connected with pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumonia caused by Klebsiella can result in bloody sputum, which is commonly referred to as "currant jelly."
Tuberculosis, Gram-negative pneumonia, lung abscesses, and, especially commonly, acute bronchitis all can cause bloody sputum (known as hemoptysis). Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia might be characterized with swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, joint pain, or a middle ear infection. However, because there is no evidence to support this distinction, it is no longer emphasised.
Pneumonia is caused by infections caused mainly by bacteria or viruses, with fungi and parasites occuring less usually. Despite the reality that more than 100 infectious agent strains have been identified, just a few are responsible for a lot of cases. In around 45 percent of infections in children and 15 percent of infections in adults, mixed infections with viruses and bacteria may develop. Despite extensive testing, a responsible substance may not be found in around half of cases.