Perspective - Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Allied Science (2021) Volume 5, Issue 2
A report on diarrhoea in adult calves.
Veena Priyadarshini S *
School of Life Sciences, B.S. Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Veena Priyadarshini S
School of Life Sciences
B.S. Abdur Rahaman Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Tel: 9500084421r> E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: September 17, 2021; Accepted Date: September 28, 2021; Published Date: September 30, 2021
Citation: Veena Priyadarshini S (2021)A report on diarrhoea in adult calves . J Vet Med Allied Sci 2021 Volume 5 Issue 2: 4.
Calf diarrhoea is a frequent illness in young animals that continues to be a major source of productivity and economic loss for cattle farmers all over the world. According to the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System report for U.S. dairy, diarrhoea was responsible for half of the fatalities among unweaned calves. Several infections are known or suspected to cause or contribute to the development of calf diarrhoea. Other factors, such as the environment and management techniques, have an impact on the severity or outcome of disease. Infectious and non-infectious causes of calf diarrhoea have been identified. This illness is caused by a variety of enteric pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, and protozoa). In diarrheic calves, co-infection is common.
The prevalence of each infection and illness might differ depending on the farm's geographic location, farm management techniques, and herd size. Despite significant advancements in herd management, animal facilities and care, feeding and nutrition, and the timely application of biopharmaceuticals, calf diarrhoea remains a challenge due to the multifactorial nature of the disease. Calf diarrhoea prevention and control should be founded on a thorough understanding of the disease's intricacies, such as various pathogens, co-infection, environmental factors, and pre-disease diet and treatment.
In adult cattle, Salmonella is a prevalent cause of diarrhoea. Animals are frequently affected suddenly, becoming quiet, refusing to eat, and developing a fever and foul-smelling diarrhoea. Salmonella infections can cause a variety of symptoms ranging from mild to severe, as well as abortions. A source of dissemination in a herd is frequently an animal carrying the infection but displaying no signs of sickness. When agitated, these animals will sporadically discharge microorganisms from their feces. Feed and water pollution by feces are common routes of transmission, especially in feedlots.
Yersinia is another bacterium that can cause diarrhoea in animals. It normally affects only one animal at a time, but outbreaks can happen in yearlings after severe winter weather. Cattle with Yersinia infections are generally sad, developing slowly and suffering from odorless diarrhoea. The causes of diarrhoea can be divided into two groups. Infectious diarrhoea is caused by agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and mycotoxins, among others. Non-infectious diarrhoea is caused by poor hygiene, stress, overeating, indigestion, a poor diet, intestinal injury and inflammation, and malabsorption. Regardless of the cause, the treatment for diarrhoea is very similar. Because specific treatment is rarely possible, symptomatic treatment for the diarrhoea should be used. It should be focused on restoring fluid balance (dehydration), acidosis (acidity), and salt loss. Calves can be fed milk that has been diluted with an equal amount of clean water. Antibiotic and/or sulpha treatment can be given at the same time as the dehydration treatment. Salt powders (also known as electrolyte powders) are available for oral administration and can be mixed with water. Bacteria such as Yersinia and Salmonella could infect people. When dealing with animals that have diarrhoea, it's important to keep hands clean.
It's important to remember that some diarrheal infectious agents, such as Salmonella and Yersinia, can cause human illness. When dealing with sick cattle, maintain a high level of hygiene. There are a variety of diseases in which diarrhoea is a side effects like, liver ailment, peritonitis is a type of peritonitis that affect (e.g., hardware disease), failure of the heart, poisonings caused by chemicals or plants (e.g., lead or nitrate)