Commentary - Journal of Clinical Respiratory Medicine (2021) Volume 5, Issue 5
A brief note on chronic inflammatory disease.
Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
- Corresponding Author:
- Priscilla Davison
Department of Internal Medicine
Nihon University School of Medicine
Accepted date: 08 October, 2021
Citation: Davison P. A brief note on chronic inflammatory disease. 2021;5(5):1-2
About the Study
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lungs' airways. Variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow blockage, and readily induced bronchospasms are all characteristics of this condition. These can happen a few times per day or several times each week. Asthma symptoms can increase at night or during exercise, depending on the individual.
A blend of genetic and environmental factors is thought to be the cause of asthma. Air pollution and allergies are two environmental factors to consider. Medications such as aspirin and beta blockers are also potential triggers. The pattern of symptoms, reaction to therapy over time, and spirometry lung function testing are usually used to make a diagnosis. It can also be characterized as atopic or non-atopic, with atopy referring to a high risk of developing a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction.
Asthma has really no known cure, but it is completely manageable. Symptoms can be prevented by avoiding triggers such allergens and respiratory irritants, and they can be reduced by using inhaled corticosteroids. If asthma symptoms continue, long-acting beta agonists (LABA) or antileukotriene medicines may be utilized in addition to inhaled corticosteroids. Inhaled short-acting beta-2 agonists like salbutamol and oral corticosteroids are frequently used to treat quickly increasing symptoms. Intravenous corticosteroids, magnesium, and hospitalisation may be required in the most severe cases.
Asthma affected approximately 262 million people in 2019 and was related for 461,000 deaths. The majority of the deaths happened in developing countries. Asthma frequently starts in childhood, and the prevalence of the disease has risen sharply since the 1960s. Asthma was first identified in Ancient Egypt.
Recurrent episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing all are signs of asthma. Coughing can causes sputum to be produced from the lungs, but it is typically difficult to bring up. Due to the excessive concentration of white blood cells called eosinophils, it may appear pus-like during recovery from an asthma attack (exacerbation). Symptoms are frequently worse at night and early in the morning, or in response to acute activity or exposure to cold air. Some people with asthma only get symptoms once in a while, usually in response to triggers, but others get symptoms regularly and easily and have lengthy symptoms.
Other health conditions, including such gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), rhinosinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea, are more common in patients with asthma. Anxiety disorders affect 16–52 percent of the people, and mood disorders affect 14–41 percent of the people. It's uncertain whether asthma creates psychological issues or whether psychological issues cause asthma. Radiocontrast responses are more likely in people who have asthma, especially if it is poorly controlled.
Asthma sufferers are more likely to develop cavities. This could be due to the fact that beta 2 agonists reduce saliva production. These treatments may also raise your chances of developing dental erosions. Asthma is caused by a complex and highly uncertain mix of genetics and environmental factors. Both the severity and the treatment response are influenced by different factors. Developments in epigenetics (heritable variables other than those linked to the DNA sequence) and a changing living environment are thought to be too responsible for the recent rise in asthma prevalence. Asthma that develops before the age of 12 is more likely to be caused by genetic factors, whereas asthma that develops beyond that age is more likely to be caused by environmental factors.
Many environmental factors, including allergens, air pollution, and other environmental chemicals, have been connected to the development and treatment of asthma. Smoking is linked with an increased risk of asthma-like symptoms during pregnancy and after birth. Asthma development and severity have been linked to poor air quality caused by environmental factors such as traffic pollution or high ozone levels. In the United States, more than half of all cases in children occur in places where air quality is below EPA requirements. Low-income and minority populations are more likely to experience low air quality.
Indoor volatile organic compound exposure has already been linked with an increased risk of asthma; formaldehyde exposure, for example, has been linked to an increased risk. Certain forms of PVC contains phthalates, that have been linked to asthma in both children and adults. While pesticide exposure has been linked to the development of asthma, no cause-and-effect relationship has been demonstrated.
The majority of data indicates that acetaminophen (paracetamol) or antibiotic use does not cause asthma. When respiratory illnesses were taken into consideration, the link between acetaminophen usage and asthma disappeared, according to a 2014 systematic study. Asthma has been related to indoor allergen exposure. Dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander (fur or feather pieces), and fungus are all common indoor allergens. Dust mite removal efforts have been found to have little effect on symptoms in sensitive people. Weak data indicates that fixing buildings to reduce fungus could help adults with asthma problems. When acquired as a child, viral respiratory illnesses such as respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus may increase the risk of developing asthma. Other infections, on the other side, may decrease the risk.