Journal of Clinical Research and Pharmacy

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Short Communication - Journal of Clinical Research and Pharmacy (2018) Volume 1, Issue 2

The link between hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) use and breast cancer risk

Breast cancer is that the abnormal growth of the cells lining the breast ducts or lobules. These cells grow uncontrollably and have the potential to unfold to alternative elements of the body. Both women and men will develop carcinoma, though breast cancer is rare in men. Most breast cancers square measure found after they square measure invasive. Invasive carcinoma means that the cancer has unfold from the breast ducts or lobules into the encompassing breast tissue. the most varieties of invasive carcinoma are: invasive ductal malignant neoplastic disease (IDC) - starts within the ducts and accounts for regarding eightieth of breast cancers, invasive lobe malignant neoplastic disease (ILC) - starts within the lobules and makes up regarding 100 percent of breast cancers. Less common varieties embody inflammatory carcinoma and osteitis deformans of the sex organ. In the general public, the precise explanation for carcinoma is unknown, however some factors will increase the chance. The general public with carcinoma haven't any glorious risk factors, other than obtaining older. Having risk factors doesn't essentially mean you may develop carcinoma. In women, risk factors include: older age, a robust case history, with many first-degree relatives (e.g. mother, sister) diagnosed with carcinoma and/or a selected form of female internal reproductive organ cancer. However, most ladies diagnosed with carcinoma don't have a case history, heritable a mutation within the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes (see below) - a lot of common with Israelite human heritage, a previous identification of carcinoma or ductal malignant neoplastic disease in place (DCIS), a past history of explicit non-cancerous breast conditions, like lobe malignant neoplastic disease in place (LCIS) or atypical ductal dysplasia (abnormal cells within the lining of the milk ducts), often drinking alcohol, being overweight when climacteric, an absence of physical activity, having had actinotherapy to the chest for Hodgkin unwellness, particularly if diagnosed below thirty, long-run internal secretion replacement medical care (HRT) use (slight increase in carcinoma risk). Having youngsters and breastfeeding will each slightly cut back carcinoma risk.In men, risk factors include: older age, a robust case history, with many first-degree relatives (male or female) UN agency have had carcinoma; a relative diagnosed with breast cancer below the age of 40; or many relatives with female internal reproductive organ or carcinoma, heritable a mutation within the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, a rare genetic syndrome referred to as syndrome - men with this syndrome have three sex chromosomes (XXY) rather than the standard two (XY). Over 2200 of new breast cancer cases are diagnosed annually in Cuba, and it is estimated that 1 in 14 women will develop the disease. The highest incidence occurs among women between 45-65 years of age, and is the second leading cause of death in women. Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) is any form of hormone therapy wherein the patient, in course of treatment receives hormones either to supplement lack of naturally occurring hormones or to substitute them. There are two main types of HRT: Combination HRT which contains the hormones estrogen and progesterone, and estrogenonly HRT, both of which have been linked to different effects on breast cancer risk. Combination HRT increases breast cancer risk by about 75% even when used for only a short time, whiles the estrogen-only HRT increases risk when used for more than 10 years. Current or recent past users of hormonal replacement therapy have a higher risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Before the link between HRT use and breast cancer link was established, many postmenopausal women took HRT for many years to ease menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and fatigue and to reduce bone loss. Cuba is not an exception to the significant drop in the number of women taking HRT, since 2002 when research linked the therapy to the risk of developing breast cancer. Findings: By establishing certain parameters a survey was conducted for a period of time to study the impact of the hormonal in a group of 22 Cuban women above 40 years who were in use of the therapy. It was realized after the intervention that most of the women surveyed were all oblivious of the risk of developing breast cancer through the use HRT, which helped increase their knowledge significantly, with as high as 90.9% of the participants acquiring adequate knowledge about the risk of developing breast cancer through the use of HRT after the survey relative to 13.6% before the intervention program as shown in table.1 Conclusion & Significance: This intervention has been found to be a useful avenue to address this topic, therefore recommendations made for future researches to throw more light on the topic since very little research has been done on it. Recommendations are also so made for early diagnosis, alternative and safer forms of treatment to reduce breast cancer incidence and mortality, since most women have had a positive attitude towards HRT use based on empirical data.

Author(s): Wilson Selorm Gobah

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