Special Issue Article - Immunology Case Reports (2020) Volume 4, Issue 3
Mucosal Immunology: An Overview
Mucosal Immunology: An Overview
Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala*
Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA, E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Received date: December 22, 2017; Accepted date: December 28, 2017; Published date: December 29, 2017
Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala (2017) Mucosal Immunology: An Overview. J Mucosal Immunol Res 1: e103
Immune system is a complex and diverse system designed to protect the body from dangerous pathogens whereas the mucosal immune system on other hand comprises the largest immune system in the human body designed for protecting against toxic elements entering the body through mucous membranes. ?ere has been a sLJnLficant advancement in the mucosal immunology research in recent years including the discovery of new cell types and microbial alterations LnfluencLnJ the gastrointestinal tract. In general, the vast majority of infections occur through the mucosa therefore, understanding the mechanism of initial host defense response or innate immunity at the mucosal surface controlling these infections thereby protecting the system is a novel and promising area of research. 6pecLfically mucosal innate immune cells play a key role in regulating the gut homeostasis and intestinal LnflammatLon. Mucosal immunity plays a major role in the pathology of some diseases such as Lnflammatory bowel disease particularly in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. ?e mucosal immune system demonstrates extensive flexLbLlLty a??ected by several factors such as diet, antibiotics and other environmental factors. Recent studies showed that the innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), intestinal microbiota, intestinal macrophages, retinoic acid (RA) and mucosaassociated invariant T Cells (MAIT) are some of the factors that play a major role in mucosal immune system of gut. Among these, ILCs are the key cells enriched in the mucosal surfaces shown to activate in response to the stress signals and multiple epithelial- and myeloid-cellderived cytokines. Gut microbiota on other hand, has demonstrated to play an indispensable role in shaping the local mucosal gut-associated lymphoid tissue as well as systemic immunity specLfically in the dL??erentLatLon of e??ector T helper (?) 1, ?1and regulatory T (Treg) cells responsible for ?1/?2/?1 homeostasis. Gut microbiota and intestinal macrophages has associated in various diseases such as obesity, allergy, cancer, diabetes, Lnflammatory bowel disease, asthma and several neurological or behavioral disorders. Macrophages are the most abundant leucocytes living in the intestinal mucosa that maintain intestinal homeostasis by secreting cytokines and by enJulfinJ or clearing the bacteria or their product.
Previous reports showed that the prototypical ?1 ?2 cytokines, microbial or endogenous signals such as IL-4, IL-13, IL-10 and TGF-β could regulate these macrophages. In addition to these factors, RA and RA receptors play a critical role in maintaining the balance between optimal protective immunity and e??ectLve peripheral tolerance for the mucosal immune system.
MAIT on other hand found in the intestinal mucosa play a key role in antibacterial host defense. Overall, these factors maintain the perfect balance of mucosal immune system through a cascade of events. Some of the key challenges and prospects for the future research in mucosal immunology will include studies involved in elucidating the prospective application of innate lymphoid cells and their subsets, signaling cascade mechanisms involving various receptors and microbiome, metabolome analyses in the expansion of novel therapeutic treatments for human patients with Lnflammatory and infectious diseases. Finally, in recent scenario mucosal immunology research is one of the burgeoning and novel areas of research in immunology.Author(s): Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala