Review Article - Hematology and Blood Disorders (2022) Volume 5, Issue 3
Megaloblastic anaemia with pancytopenia.
Megaloblastic anemia is a form of anemia characterized by very large red blood cells. Most common causes of megaloblastic anemia are deficiency of either cobalamin (vitamin B12) or folate (vitamin B9) due to inadequate food assumption. Pancytopenia is a condition where reduction of red blood cell, white blood cell and Platelets. Widespread of anemia is more is female than male in the age group of 15-35. Most common symptoms are generalized weakness, shortness of breath when undertaking normal tasks, high-grade fever. Hands and feet of patients have no history of par-anesthesia, no history of seizure, no pain in abdomen, no puffiness on face, no splenectomy, no Malena is noted but loss of appetite is seen. On family history examination, no sickle cell anemia or thalassemia is present in the family. On examination Pallor present in conjunctiva and nails, no icterus, hyperpigmentation is seen over the back hands and finger, no lymphadenopathy (lymph node is unaffected) is present. On investigation Sévère macrocyte anemia, leucopénie (decrease in WBC count) and thrombocytopenia (decrease in platelets) were discovered in the laboratory. Peripheral smear showed moderate anisocytosis (RBC of unequal size) with significant macrocytosis (enlarge RBC), Normocytes showing mild to moderate hypochromia. Occasional late normoblasts is seen. Leucopenia with relative lymphocytosis with few rare giant platelets was seen. Most common test which reveals underlining cause of pancytopenia is Bone Marrow test. For treatment Injection vitofol IM should be given for megaloblastic anemia.Author(s): Shreyansh Singh Thakur*, Keta Wagh