Short Communication - Journal of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (2020) Volume 4, Issue 2
Chemistry Congress 2019 Circulating Rotavirus Types and Drug-Resistant Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Causing Enteric Infection in Under-Five Children in Rural West Bengal, India
Acute gastroenteritis is an important cause of global morbidity and mortality. In this study, we collected 486 fecal specimens from diarrheal patients during January 2014 to December 2014. We have found G1[P8] as highest prevalent (85%) genotype of rotavirus followed by G9[P4] (9%). Furthermore, group A rotavirus (54.52%) was found as the primary causative agent of childhood diarrhea and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (31.89%) as the second causative agent. A significant number of rotavirus-bacteria mixed infection was found. The antibiotic susceptibility study reveals the prevalence of multi-drug resistance diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. This study suggests a particular preventive measure for diarrhea during the first the two years of life.
Acute gastroenteritis due to enteropathogens is a leading cause of hospitalization of young children in developed countries and one of the significant causes of mortality in developing countries . In developing countries, each child experience 3.5 to 7.0 diarrheal episodes during first two years of life and 2 to 5 diarrheal episodes upto 5 years of life . ?e global morbidity and mortality due to single rotavirus infection were estimated about 110 million cases out of which 4 million children die an+nually [3,4]. In poorest countries, childhood death due to rotavirus gastroenteritis accounts for 85% .In India, approximately 22% of the 453,000 deaths among children below five years of age are because of rotavirus gastroenteritis  and about 20 to 70% of hospitalizations are attributable to rotavirus .?ere are two surface antigens of group A rotavirus called as VP7 (Gtype) and VP4 (P-type) and they have a role in neutralization of host defense mechanism . However, the etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis include a broad range of causative agents that di??er significantly with geographical variation .
Among other causative agents of acute gastroenteritis, viral agents account for 75% out of which rotavirus account for 50% , and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is responsible for 30%-40% of all diarrheal illness among children <5 years of age . ?e DEC has sixmajor pathotypes including enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC),enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC),enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and di??usely adherent E. coli (DAEC). ?e pathotypes of DECs di??er intheir virulence mechanism and clinical manifestation . ?ey are the primary cause of persistent diarrhea due to their high prevalenceboth in the hospital, and community setting . In a hospital setting in-patients, diarrhea due to EPEC found in 25.4% of cases .Author(s): Kunal Dutta