Research Article - Journal of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (2020) Volume 2, Issue 2
Biofilm formation, virulence factor, antibiotic and dry resistance of Enterobacter sa-kazakiiand its implication ininfant food contamination
Bacterial infections are an escalating public health threat that causes morbidity and mortality. Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen that can contaminate a wide range of foods and causes different diseases like meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and bacteremia in immuno-compromised, low weight individuals, neonates, infants, and elders. Enterobacter sakazakiiis expected to possess diversified virulence factors and have the ability to persist in extremely dried foods such as powdered infant formula(PIF) that can act as the main vectors of transmission. Therefore, to prevent infants from this bacterium it is better to use breastfeeding for the first 6 months of age. However, infants of HIV positive mothers, infants with very-low-birth-weight, infants born from working-class mothers, and infants of mothers who are taking medication are the main contributing factors that lower or hinder breastfeeding and in this case, they are forced to use powdered infant formula but these products are not sterile. Enterobacter sakazakii is also expected to imperil the health of infants who are found in emergency sites like a refugee because of the high consumption of powdered infant formula and lack of facilities. Infant food contamination by this bacterium is attributed to biofilm which are microbial communities attached to biotic or abiotic surfaces using a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Enterobacter sakazakii can form biofilms on food, food processing surfaces, and equipment that ushered cross-contamination. The contamination scenarios can be during manufacture, processing, handling, preparation, storing, and reconstitution. Enterobacter sakazakiialso showed multidrug resistance to some antibiotics. Biofilm formation accompanied by antibiotic resistance is worrisome for medication. Therefore, to prevent or reduce risk contamination infant food companies, health sectors, caregivers, aid providers, mothers, families, and other concerned bodies must be informed and alerted about this hidden bacterium. Thus, this review focuses on biofilm formation, virulence factors, antibiotic and dry resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii and its implication in infant food contamination.
Author(s): Gedif Meseret Abebe