Mini Review - Neurophysiology Research (2022) Volume 4, Issue 4
A significant update on basic neurodegenerative mechanisms.
Clinical appearance of neurodegenerative disorders is determined by the increasing malfunctioning of particular populations of neurons. The characteristic of many neurodegenerative proteinopathies, extracellular and intracellular accumulation of misfolded proteins, is linked to neuronal death. Major fundamental processes include abnormal protein dynamics caused by ubiquitin-proteosome-autophagy system deficiencies, oxidative stress and free radical formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, compromised bioenergetics, dysfunction of neurotrophins, "neuroinflammatory" processes, and (secondary) disruptions of neuronal Golgi apparatus and axonal transport. These connected systems work together over many years to cause programmed cell death. The principal components of protein deposits or known genetic processes are used to categorise neurodegenerative illnesses, however new research have revealed overlap and intraindividual differences between various symptoms. Pathological proteins' synergistic interactions imply widespread pathogenic pathways. Animal models and other studies have shed light on the fundamental mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and cell death, opening up fresh avenues for potential future prevention/treatment approaches.Author(s): Andrey Abramov