Biomedical Research

Research Article - Biomedical Research (2017) Volume 28, Issue 13

Risk factors of drug-resistant bacterial pneumonia in elderly inpatients in Shandong Province

Hua Feng1#, Song Yan2#, Yulin Chen3, Cuiling Zhu2 and Lanping Wang4*

1Sterilization and Supply Room, Affiliated Hospital of Tai Shan Medical College, PR China

2Department of Burn, Affiliated Hospital of Tai Shan Medical College, PR China

3Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Tai Shan Medical College, PR China

4Operation Room, Affiliated Hospital of Tai Shan Medical College, PR China

#These authors contributed equally to this work

*Corresponding Author:
Lanping Wang
Operation Room
Affiliated Hospital of Tai Shan Medical College, PR China

Accepted date: May 15, 2017

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Abstract

Objective: To analyse the risk factors of drug-resistant bacterial pneumonia in elderly inpatients in Shandong Province.

Methods: From January 2014 to December 2016, 10 cities and counties were randomly selected in Shandong Province, three medical institutions were also selected in each city or county, 200 cases of elderly patients with bacterial pneumonia were recruited as research objects in each of the medical institutions based on the random principle. They were receiving sputum culture and smear examination, analysis of bacterial pathogens characteristics and drug resistance related risk factors.

Results: A total of 6000 subjects were studied. The result of sputum culture and susceptibility test showed that 11352 bacterial strains were isolated, among which Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Bowman had the largest number and the most serious drug resistance.

Conclusion: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii are the main pathogens in elderly patients with bacterial pneumonia in Shandong Province, and the serious drug resistance also needs attention.

Keywords

Elderly population, Drug resistance, Bacterial pneumonia, Shandong Province, China

Introduction

Drug-resistant bacterial pneumonia is a big public health issue word widely. It usually happens in patients with stroke (SAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia and Health care-associated pneumonia. Some reports found that, SAP patients with Multiple Drug-Resistant bacterial (MDR) infections are connected with disturbance of consciousness late-onset pneumonia and ICU ward. The prevalence of the MDR bacteria was high in China [1]. For the treatment, yang found that a large dose of ambroxol has significant therapeutic effect in the treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial pneumonia [2] and a history of bronchiectasis or recent hospitalization is the major indication of starting empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics [3]. In ventilator-associated pneumonia, gramnegative bacteria were the main pathogenic bacteria in VAP, as well most of them were multi-drug resistance [4]. In health care-associated pneumonia, recent hospitalization is the only risk factor for HCAP which is shown to be associated with DRB, which is the similar to SAP [5]. However, few researches were focused on the Shandong Province in China. As a consequence, in order to investigate the clinical data of bacterial pneumonia of elderly inpatients in Shandong Province, during January 2014 to December 2016, the researchers chose three medical institutions in each of 10 counties and cities in Shandong Province based on the random principle. In each medical institution, clinical data of 200 cases of elderly patients with bacterial pneumonia were collected for analyzing the pneumonia pathogens and drug resistance. Some results were achieved and reported below.

Materials and Methods

General information

From January 2014 to December 2016, respectively, three medical institutions were chose in Jinan, Zibo, Qingdao, Zaozhuang, Dongying, Weifang, Jining, Tai'an, Weihai and Rizhao in Shandong Province. In each medical institution, clinical data of 200 cases of elderly patients with bacterial pneumonia were collected for analysis [6-8]. The inclusive criteria for subjects in this study are as follows: (1) age over 55 years; (2) pathogens are bacteria; (3) without any immunosuppressive agents and glucocorticoid treatment before this study; (4) without any serious liver and kidney dysfunction and any blood disorders; (5) without any severe trauma, or empyrosis; (6) without any special antibody treatment within 1 month prior to this study; (7) all subjects were informed this study and volunteered to participate in this study.

Research method

All patients were asked to collect sputum samples after admission, and store the samples properly for drug susceptibility and sputum bacterial culture test in the test laboratory (Nanjing Jiancheng Bio, China). All the medical institutions involved in the study have the consistency of the good test level, all the inspectors in the study have received the relevant training and assessment before the study, all of them are qualified; test equipment and reagents are recognized by the researchers to ensure that the determination has good consistency [9-12]. In the process of collecting sputum samples, the relevant medical personnel should perform strict implementation of aseptic procedures to reduce the risk of iatrogenic infection, or interference to the test results; sputum specimens should be collected in the early morning, because sputum at this time has large amount and contains a large number of bacteria. Before sample collection, patients should be asked to rinse mouth with water for several times to remove oral bacteria. Then patients forced the sputum from deep in the trachea spit and spit into the prepared sterile containers in advance to avoid saliva and other secretions mixed into the sputum. If the patient has difficulty to sputum, or cannot expectorate, throat swab will be used to replace sputum specimens; specimens of sputum or throat swab should be sent to inspection laboratory timely [13-17].

Statistical analysis

The data of this study were analysed by SPSS18.0 software, and the statistical data were presented as the constituent ratio, which were mainly described by statistical aspects.

Results

Distribution and constitution of pathogens

In this study, 11352 strains of pathogens were isolated, and the specific distribution and composition ratio were shown in Table 1.

Pathogens Number of strains (n) Composition ratio (%)
Klebsiella pneumoniae 2381 20.97
Baumanii 2039 17.96
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2043 18.00
Escherichia coli 1470 12.96
Haemophilus influenzae 641 5.65
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 329 2.90
Staphylococcus aureus 1148 10.11
Streptococcus pneumoniae 511 4.50
Staphylococcus haemolyticus 566 4.99
Burkholderia cepacia 229 2.02

Table 1. Distribution of pathogens of all patients.

Drug susceptibility test

In this study, drug susceptibility test results of pneumonia pathogens including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii are listed in Tables 2 and 3.

Types of antimicrobials Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acinetobacter baumannii
MDR (-) strain MDR (+) strain MDR (-) strain MDR (+) strain
Number (n) Constituent ratio (%) Number (n) Constituent ratio (%) Number (n) Constituent ratio (%) Number (n) Constituent ratio (%)
PRL 450 40.00 918 100.00 834 76.58 950 100.00
CTX 849 75.47 787 85.73 903 82.92 922 97.05
CFP 378 33.60 633 68.95 763 70.06 902 94.95
CAZ 182 16.18 678 67.32 852 78.24 923 97.16
IMP 276 24.53 429 46.73 461 42.33 856 90.11
SAM 514 45.69 918 100.00 795 73.00 950 100.00
TZP 262 23.29 651 70.92 712 65.39 822 86.52
ATM 398 35.38 644 70.15 793 72.82 885 93.16
CN 339 30.13 640 69.72 914 83.93 903 95.05
TOB 492 43.73 799 87.04 554 50.87 859 90.42
LEV 234 20.80 465 50.65 841 77.23 890 93.68
CIP 254 22.58 551 60.02 875 80.35 882 92.84
MH 396 35.20 624 67.97 279 25.62 487 51.26
SXT 1024 91.02 918 100.00 956 87.79 950 100.00
FEP 281 24.98 696 75.82 811 74.47 863 90.84
MEM 279 24.80 374 40.74 492 45.18 883 92.95
TE 852 75.73 826 89.98 925 84.94 948 99.79
AK 113 10.04 247 26.91 854 78.42 849 89.37
SCP 146 12.98 335 36.49 339 31.23 571 60.11
FEP 282 25.07 697 75.93 837 76.86 865 91.06

Table 2. Drug susceptibility test results of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii results.

Types of antimicrobials Escherichia coli Klebsiella pneumoniae
ESBLs (-) strain ESBLs (+) strain ESBLs (-) strain ESBLs (+) strain
Number (n) Constituent ratio (%) Number (n) Constituent ratio (%) Number (n) Constituent ratio (%) Number (n) Constituent ratio (%)
PRL 689 70.31 490 100.00 696 47.03 820 91.01
AMP 833 85.00 490 100.00 1480 100.00 901 100.00
KZ 713 72.76 414 84.49 1074 72.57 724 80.36
CAZ 128 13.06 372 75.92 300 20.27 749 83.13
CXM 391 39.90 467 95.31 654 44.19 883 98.00
CTX 153 15.61 401 81.84 353 23.85 766 85.02
FEP 147 15.00 352 71.84 155 10.47 331 36.74
FOX 113 11.53 177 36.12 142 9.59 302 33.52
SAM 354 36.12 328 66.94 519 35.07 307 62.65
AMC 298 30.41 376 76.73 253 17.09 502 55.72
TZP 103 10.51 113 23.06 162 10.95 293 32.52
ATM 302 30.82 385 78.57 367 24.80 635 70.48
AK 105 10.71 108 22.04 90 6.09 217 24.08
CN 174 17.76 398 81.22 165 11.15 664 73.70
NET 217 22.14 211 43.06 193 13.04 211 23.42
TOB 222 22.65 215 43.88 240 16.22 345 38.29
LEV 130 13.27 248 50.61 92 6.22 149 16.54
CIP 323 32.96 276 56.33 139 9.39 333 36.96
SXT 699 71.33 440 89.80 902 60.95 772 85.68

Table 3. Drug susceptibility test results of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Discussion

Bacterial pneumonia is one of the most important factors leading to the death of the elderly population, which is the fifth death cause in non-cancer patients according to the literature and closely related to the physiological characteristics of the elderly [18-20]. Another Medical study has confirmed that the mortality rate of the elderly patients with pneumonia reached 5-13%, while the mortality rate even more than 15.4% in the 80 y old population. Besides, the risk of pneumonia in older groups increased by about 10 times than the young people [21-24]. In recent years, more and more novel types of antibiotics have been used in clinical, which not only effectively improve the symptoms and signs of pneumonia, survival also received a corresponding extension, but drug resistance becomes the obvious disadvantage [25]. Not only in bacterial pneumonia in the elderly group, is drug resistance in other infectious diseases also faced with serious situation. It should be noted that the elderly group with bacterial pneumonia have strong drug resistance and high risk of multiple organ failure, so effective and reliable testing and other related diagnostic techniques are in need for guiding the clinical treatment next. Because the antibiotic choice dependence on the clinical experience of doctors has a certain risk, investigation of the source of the patient's epidemiological pathology and drug resistance have indicated a good clinical significance.

A total of 6000 subjects in this study were recruited from 300 medical institutions of 10 cities and counties in Shandong Province. The inspectors in the study accepted training before the study and followed strict implementation of aseptic procedures to ensure consistency of test results. 11,352 strains of pathogens were isolated from the sputum or throat swab specimens of 6,000 elderly patients with bacterial pneumonia. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli are the most four strains of sputum culture. Their resistance is also serious and by drug susceptibility test, which need clinical focus. For pseudomonas aeruginosa, more than 50% percent of CTX, SXT, TE were being resistant. For acinetobacter baumannii, it was resistant to nearly all drugs. For Escherichia coli, almost it was resistant to all drugs except FOX, TZP, AK, NET and TOP. For Klebsiella pneumoniae, it is also resistant to half of parts of anti-drugs.

In conclusion, resistant bacterial pneumonia in elderly inpatients in Shandong province in China is serious.

References