While the rational understanding on the therapeutic and preventive care of epidemic diseases have enriched our knowledge, recent outbreak of complicated infectious diseases have presented newest challenges towards humankind. It started from the beginning of 19th century when disease infection from unknown origin preferred its host as human and mass mortality altered the socio-economic strata of various corners of the globe. For instance, human being witnessed some newly emerged global burdens such as HIV, Ebola hemorrhage fever, Zika Virus, Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in the last century. Nevertheless, drastic changes in the environment, mutations in genetic composition and increased population extend the chances for new disease emergence. The inception of biomedical research has brought new diagnosis and treatment options; however, the outbreaks are being surprised and caused by new strains or modified strains. Translational biomedicine is a new context in this regard and raised the hope in integrated approaches to develop new diagnostic and treatment methods. In this review, we have summarized timely information about recently reported disease pathologies, which have challenged the world with mass mortality, and discussed about the causative agents, possible treatment strategies and future perspective for respective diseases.