It is unclear whether there is significant association between TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism and chronic periodontitis risk. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis. We conducted a search through PubMed, Embase and the Web of Science. The associations between TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism and chronic periodontitis risk as estimated using the OR and 95% CI. A total of 7 studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, a significant association between the TGF- β1-509C/T polymorphism and chronic periodontitis risk was identified (OR=0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-1.00). When stratified by ethnicity, the TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism showed a significant contribution to chronic periodontitis risk in the Asians (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99). However, Caucasians with the TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism did not show positive result (OR=0.94; 95% CI, 0.67-1.32). In the nonsmoker subgroup, no significant association was detected (OR=0.83; 95% CI, 0.60-1.15). In conclusion, this study suggested that TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism was associated with chronic periodontitis risk.